This study aimed to clarify changes in physical function over a one-year period, as well as sex differences in elderly persons with cardiac disease during the maintenance period. A total of 29 elderly over the age of 65 （14 males： 74.1±6.0 years, 15 females： 74.0±4.1 years） with cardiac disease took yearly physical function tests over a two-year period. The 3 physical characteristics measurement, 6 Japan physical fitness tests developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science, and Technology of Japan, the stepping test by sitting position, and the timed up & go test were used. A questionnaire consisting of 12 items concerning daily living activities was administered to the participants. The mean differences were examined using two-way analysis of variance with one-factor repeated measurements. Muscular strength decreased in a one-year period in only one male and was superior in males in both years. Flexibility was superior in females, with any decrease over a one-year period being unnoticeable. The ability to walk decreased during a one-year period, but functional mobility improved. Decreases in equilibrium, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and agility were not found during the one-year period, and no sex difference was found. In conclusion, appropriate training and guidance for improving physical function relative to maintenance of muscular strength as well as an increase in the ability to walk may be required for elderly people with cardiac disease during the maintenance period.
Subjective well-being is one of the important components in the life of an individual. Previous studies have found that subjective well-being can be influenced by various factors, including social problem-solving and personality. The purpose of this study was to examine two hypothesized causal relationships among personality traits, social problem-solving, and subjective well-being. In this study, we focused on extraversion and neuroticism as personality traits. Social problem-solving comprises two components, problem orientation and problem-solving skills.
Subjects were 217 college students (mean age 21.9 yrs). The subjects completed the Japanese versions of the 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale, the 17-item social problem-solving scale, and the 12-item Eysenck's Short Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales.
Results of covariance structure analyses supported most of the causal paths in the hypothesized causal models. The results showed that extraversion positively influenced problem orientation in the model including extraversion, and neuroticism negatively influenced problem orientation and subjective well-being in the model including neuroticism. It was also found that in both models, problem orientation was positively influenced by problem-solving skills, and subjective well-being was positively influenced by problem orientation and problem-solving skills. Moreover, the data indicated that problem orientation positively influenced problem-solving skills in both models.
There are very few studies on growth and development in young children in South Korea, and there are almost none that have comparatively investigated physique and motor abilities between Japan and South Korea. In the present study, we compare the physical characteristics of preschool children in Japan and South Korea, and investigate the differences in physique and motor ability between the two countries. The subjects were 107 children (50 boys and 57 girls) in the final year of one kindergarten in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and 143 children (94 boys and 49 girls) in the final year of one kindergarten in a suburb of Seoul, Korea. Measurements of physique were height, weight, and BMI, and measurements of physical strength were standing long jump, hanging from a horizontal bar, and one-leg standing. Regression polynomials were made for weight against height in the children of both countries, and regression evaluation charts based on standard body weight were constructed by determining the valid order for the polynomial. Body fatness was judged with a 5-level evaluation standard. Height and weight data from both countries were applied to the regression evaluation chart and the frequency distribution of body fatness in Japan and South Korea was derived. An x2 test was then performed for the distribution in the two countries and body fatness was compared. The t-test was used to compare motor ability in the two countries. As a result, a first order regression evaluation chart for body weight against height was constructed for both boys and girls in Japan and for boys in Korea, and a second order chart was constructed for Korean girls. x2 tests were performed for frequency distribution charts for each level of body fatness when the respective regression evaluation charts for Japanese boys and girls were applied to Korean boys and girls, and a significant difference was seen (P<0.05). It was found that both boys and girls in South Korea have fatter body types than children in Japan. Motor ability in the two countries was compared using the t-test, and significant differences were seen in all three items (P<0.05), with Japanese children showing better performance than Korean children. Since it has been pointed out that there are increasing rates of metabolic syndrome and obesity and a trend for decreasing physical strength in preschool children even in Japan, there may be serious problems in the environment of preschool children in South Korea.
This study examined the change of exertion force during maximal sustained toe grip and the relationships among toe muscle endurance parameters. Fourteen male students aged 19-24 years old participated in this study. After hearing a signal, the subjects were instructed to grip the bar with their toes as fast as possible in a seated position, and to sustain maximal force exertion for 3 minutes. The sustained times of 60, 70, and 80% forces of maximal toe grip strength (MAX), and final strength (% of MAX) were selected as parameters. The force decreased markedly until about 30 sec （about 50% of MAX）after the beginning of sustained toe grip exertion, then slowly decreased and was about 40% of MAX at 3 minutes. There were significant correlations among the sustained times of force parameters, but not between the sustained times of force parameters and final force. Therefore, these parameters were judged to evaluate the different characteristics of muscle endurance.
In recent years information on age at MPV of height as a biological parameter is lacking in Japan. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method was applied to longitudinal height growth distances in school girls from the first grade to the ninth grade in 2010, and the age at MPV of height was identified from the growth velocity curve in which the distance curve is differentiated. The trend for ten years was examined by comparing age at MPV of height in Japanese girls today and in Japanese girls ten years ago. Moreover, biological parameters in Asian girls were verified by comparing the trends in age at MPV in South Korean girls in recent years. The results showed that the physiques of girls have not increased in size in Japan since around 1990, and that the current age at MPV of height is virtually unchanged from the past in the present study. However, the current age at MPV of height shows earlier maturation than in the past in South Korea, and it is thought that the growth acceleration phenomenon is still progressing. Therefore, if between the same races, considering that age at MPV of height is a parameter that estimates the growth acceleration phenomenon, one may infer that when looking at similar races MPV of height could also be a parameter that estimates the social economic situation of a nation that regulates the human living environment. Thinking in this way, it is inferred that the social economic situation in South Korea lags behind that of Japan by more than 20 years.
This study aimed to confirm the relationship between sway factors and physical fitness, by observing the participant’s condition over a long period. This study also examined the reliability of that relationship, by combining each sway factor, hoped to verify how body sway pattern reflects changes in physical condition. The respective factors were divided into 4 domains (A, B, C and D) and 3 boundaries (AB, BC and CD), and thus factor scores were ranked in any of the above domains or boundaries, and sway pattern was decided based on sway factors. The center of foot pressure (COP) measurement and the subjective examination of physical condition were conducted on one subject for 100 days. The present results confirmed that the sway pattern of a subject in good physical condition is very similar to that of a normal condition. The present participant’s sway pattern is quite bad, and is judged to be in poor physical condition. It was suggested that the second and third factors change a large amount. In conclusion, the sway pattern evaluation method proposed in our previous study can generally measure an individual’s subjective body change or abnormal physical condition, and thus it may be useful for health care.
This study was undertaken to determine the motor ability, daily physical activity, and bone density in 3- to 6-year-old Japanese preschool children (n = 1159, boys = 606, and girls = 553), and also to study the relationship among motor ability, daily physical activity, and bone density in this population. We measured the subjects’ motor ability while they performed 6 events, studied their daily physical activity using Lifecorder throughout the day for 7 consecutive days, and measured bone speed of sound (SOS) using quantitative ultrasound. We found that in both sexes, the step counts and the amount of exercise in the groups with high motor ability were the highest, and in boys, the values for the group with high motor ability were significantly higher than those for the groups with intermediate and low motor ability (p < 0.05–0.01). Similarly, the bone SOS of the group with high motor ability was the highest in both sexes, and in boys, value for the group with high motor ability was significantly higher than that for the group with low motor ability (p < 0.05). It was suggested that increased daily physical activity may improve the motor ability and bone SOS in preschool children boys. Furthermore, preschoolers who perform vigorous physical activity may get accustomed to this level of activity, which may afford health benefits throughout their life.