The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological factors affecting Olympic-distance triathlon performance (1.5-km swim, 40-km bike, 10-km run). Seventeen male triathletes (age: 20.4 ± 1.3 years, height: 170.7 ± 5.9 cm, weight: 59.6 ± 6.2 kg, and body mass index: 20.4 ± 1.2) underwent the maximal and submaximal laboratory and field tests and responded to questionnaires about their psychological states on triathlon race. I confirmed their competitive swimming, cycling, and running careers. Their careers for swimming, cycling, and running were 41.5 ± 38.7 months, 23.2 ± 12.4 months, and 47.2 ± 39.1 months, respectively. The cycling career was significantly shorter than the other two careers (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between anthropometric parameters and triathlon performance. High correlations were found between some physiological and psychological variables and cycling or running performance. However, swimming performance was not significantly correlated with physiological and psychological variables. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 10-km running time and self-confidence (R2 = 0.74, SEE = 315.0, p < 0.05). The results of this study show that triathlon performance would be affecting running performance and self-confidence.
This study aimed to elucidate nurses’ dementia care practices at long-term care health facilities by following the perspective of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and to obtain suggestions for improving the role nurses play in healthcare. A survey was administered to 5 nurses each from 255 facilities in 4 prefectures in the Tokai region. The responses of 339 nurses (31.3%) were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. It was revealed that care practices that follow the perspective of the ICF comprised two factors: “making use of a comprehensive assessment of the minds and bodies” and “preparation of the human and physical environment to increase calmness in the daily lives.” The ability to practice care and to assess the minds and bodies of the elderly with dementia improved depending on the number of years of experience nurses had with dementia care. Regarding nurses’ fidelity indices for the model, the goodness of fit index (GFI) was 0.884, the adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) was 0.840, the comparative fit index (CFI) was 0.909, and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.086; GFI ≧ AGFI. Although the assessment ability could be improved upon at any nursing site, the practice of preparing the human and physical environment differed according to the location of medical treatment. Therefore, planned training and education were suggested as requirements for nurses at nursing facilities.
In recent years there has been a general decline in throwing ability among young children, and play that does not involve much throwing and a sense of inferiority with regard to throwing are factors that make them passive about the opportunities for unsolicited throwing. Thus it has become important to help children develop a more positive an attitude toward throwing in early childhood. In this study, we attempted to encourage a positive attitude toward games with throwing by helping young children acquire distance throwing skills (technique) in their throwing ability. Specifically, to extend throwing distance, we compared normal long throwing tests using a target as a guide for appropriate projection angles and investigated the effect of targets on throwing distance. The target was set so that the angle obtained was from about 30 to 45 degrees, which is thought to be the ideal projection angle for long throws. From image analysis of the throwing motion of young children, the throwing distance, initial ball speed, projection angle, and release height were obtained. The results showed that among 4-year-old children, while the use of a target decreased the initial ball velocity, their throwing distance was significantly increase because projection angle and release height were improved. In 5-year-old children, meanwhile, projection angle was improved despite the decreased initial ball speed, so that throwing distance was not significantly decreased. Overall, targets were shown to be effective for improving the projection angle in young children with a low projection angle. The above suggests that the use of targets as guides for an appropriate projection angle for young children during throwing exercise was effective in improving not only projection angle but also increasing throwing distance.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of anxiety among practitioners of end-of-life care working at facilities covered by public aid providing long-term care to the elderly. A questionnaire survey was administered to 90 care practitioners. The results indicate that more than 75% of nurses and more than 75% of care workers were aware that they were anxious about end-of-life care. Five categories and fourteen subcategories of anxiety were extracted. The five categories were "anxiety about their correspondence abilities," "anxiety about their duties," "anxiety about unknown experiences," "anxiety about better care," and "anxiety about their mental aspects." Care practitioners’ responses in the categories "anxiety about their correspondence abilities" and "anxiety about better care" indicated that they wanted to provide better end-of-life care. It was concluded that training these care practitioners to develop the ability to provide end-of-life care is necessary. Based on the care practitioners’ responses in the categories "anxiety about unknown experiences" and "anxiety about their mental aspects," it was concluded that care practitioners should share their thoughts about how they feel before, during, and after end-of-life care at conferences, as such sharing can prevent them from experiencing grief, loss, and helplessness.