The purpose of this study was to examine the estimate precision for body composition calculation for fat free mass (FFM) using underwater weighing (UWW), deuterium dilution technique (DDT), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Japanese children. The subjects of this study were 21 healthy Japanese children (boys: n=8; girls: n=13) from 6 to 15 years old. There were no significant differences among each mean values of FFM estimated by UWW, DDT and DXA. Significant correlation was found in both boys and girls between UWW and DDT (boys: r=0.997, girls: r=0.989), between DDT and DXA (boys: r=0.988, girls: r=0.985) and between UWW and DXA (boys: r=0.996, girls: r=0.977). We conclude that UWW, DDT and DXA have close correlations in the estimation of FFM for Japanese children.
This study aimed to establish standards on the motor ability for children by supports for childcare facilities. Among a total of 1,930 children aged 3-6 years, a sample of 1,863 children aged 4-6 years was used to establish the standards on motor ability. Seven motor ability tests of grip strength, standing long jump, softball throw for distance, 25-m dash, side steps, timed dipping, and sit and reach were selected in this study. The standards on the motor ability for children (SMAC2016) were established in accordance with the data distribution and by eliminating outliers in the sample. The SMAC2016 includes the standards of grip strength using a hand dynamometer for preschool children and will be available for evaluating the motor abilities in the future as well.
This study examined whether short vigorous activity interventions have impacts on improving throwing direction in sagittal plane and increasing long throw distance in preschool children. Forty-seven kindergarteners in two four-year-old child classes were participated in this study. One class played a vigorous activity named “Flying Spook” in which children fly small Origami kites mimicking TV character, and the other class played “Bomb-game” in which children throw balls into opponent side beyond the net of 155 cm height. Both activities lasted for about ten minutes. During both activities, experimenters encouraged the children to throw higher and further, but no instruction for improving throwing motion was given to the children. Ball throw distances of all the children were measured immediately before and after their intervention activity. Also, each of their videotaped throwing motions was identified its throwing direction adequacy afterward. “Flying Spook” had no effect on throwing direction and throw distance. In contrast, after the “Bomb-game”, rate of the children whose throwing direction was judged “very low” decreased significantly relative to before the activity. Moreover, increase in long throw distance was significant. We conclude that “Bomb-game” improves throwing direction and increases throw distance in preschoolers in about ten minutes.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the actual state of nursing students’ attainment level of the perineal washing technique by means of self-evaluation after the completion of adult and elderly nursing practices. The instructors checked nursing students’ perineal washing technique, performed for patients during the above practices. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 86 third-year nursing students. More than 90% of students replied that “I have attained an appropriate level of perineal washing” and “I have attained an acceptable level of perineal washing.” Thus, almost all of the students attained a certain level when they graduated from the nursing school. With respect to reasons for attaining a certain level, the following five categories were extracted: “formation of readiness,” “establishment of care according to individual patient,” “opportunity for receiving instructions,” “establishment of self-confident care,” and “sense of security because of being watched.” In terms of the reasons for not attaining a certain level, the following three categories were extracted: “technically unsure,” “anxiety about care according to individual patient,” and “insufficient experience in care for patients other than specified patients.” Being watched and guided by instructors were important factors for nursing students with insufficient experience and knowledge to perform perineal washing for patients, who were under various conditions, and these factors greatly affected students’ self-evaluation of the attainment level of the perineal washing technique. In the future, we must positively adopt the exercises of the perineal washing technique in different situations, including perineal washing for female patients by male students and vice versa.
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of anti-aging by examining the influence of continuous rhythm dance activities on physical fitness characteristics of the elderly. This study included 22 female elderly (64〜79 years) belonging to hip hop dance unit. They are continuing to practice for about two hours once a week. We administered physical fitness tests comprising six exercises (sitting trunk flexion, grip strength, leg strength, standing stepping, zigzag walking on the stick, and whole body reaction time) to gauge the elderly’s physical fitness status. The tests were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The t-test showed a non-significant difference among the year in sitting trunk flexion, grip strength, leg strength, standing stepping, and zigzag walking on the stick. On the other hand, whole body reaction time was significantly higher in 2016 compared to 2015. The effect size was large (d=1.01). Analysis were suggested that the continuous rhythm dance activity of the elderly is an exercise contributing to maintenance and improvement of nervous system function in addition to muscle strength and flexibility. In other words, it was inferred that this activity is suitable as an anti-aging approach for elderly.