The purpose of this study was to determine the trial-to-trial reliability of the Functional Movement Screen and the influence of locomotive organ dysfunction on the basis of medical examination of locomotive organs on fundamental movements evaluated using FMS during childhood. Fifth and sixth grade female students (n = 15 ; age, 10.8 ± 0.41 years ; height, 143.9 ± 6.42 cm, body weight, 35.1 ± 5.21 kg) performed the seven items included in FMS three times to determine trial-to-trial reliability. Fourth to sixth grades students (n = 67 ; age, 11.0 ± 0.75 years ; height, 142.0 ± 8.82 cm ; body weight, 36.9 ± 8.46 kg) underwent medical examination of locomotive organs and performed the seven items included in FMS to assess the relationship between the medical examination of locomotive organs and fundamental movements. Although the intraclass correlation coefficient was low for rotary stability (ICC = 0.35) and moderate for trunk stability push-up (ICC = 0.64), it was > 0.7 for other items (ICC = 0.71‐0.93) and 0.88 for the total FMS score. The total FMS score in the locomotive organ dysfunction group was significantly lower than that in the non-locomotive organ dysfunction group and their effect was high (ES = 0.84). Therefore, it was judged that the trial-to-trial reliability of FMS during childhood was good and that children with locomotive organ dysfunction are at a higher risk of developing orthopedic disorder because of poor fundamental movement ability and kinetic inefficiency than those without locomotive organ dysfunction.
This study aims to clarify the effect of hardiness, the assignment of meaning, and social support on
firefighters’ compassion fatigue. We conducted a survey of 427 firefighters in Prefecture A. We received
215 responses (50.4% response rate) with 200 valid responses (93.0% valid response rate). We then
conducted stepwise multiple regression analysis, setting compassion fatigue as the dependent variable;
hardiness’s subscales “challenge,” “control,” and “commitment,” the assignment of meaning’s subscales
“positivity,” “self-evaluation,” and “message,” and social support’s subscales “formal support” and “informal
support” were set as independent variables. As a result, we found that the adjusted R2 of hardiness’s
“commitment,” social support’s “informal support,” and the assignment of meaning’s “message” was .297
and significant (p = .040). Hardiness’s “commitment” had a significant negative standard partial regression
coefficient (β = －.394), suggesting that the greater a firefighter’s role awareness is, the lower that
firefighter’s compassion fatigue will be.
This study aimed to compare the new physical fitness test results of the fifth- and sixth-grade students
in a school established by reorganization with Japan national average. Furthermore, it was also
investigated the difference in the physical fitness between students who commutes to a school by bus and
walking. Ninety-four primary school students volunteered to undergo the new physical fitness tests. Grip
strength, sit-up, flexibility, repeated lateral steps, standing broad jump, 20-m shuttle run, 50-m sprint, and
softball throw were measured based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Education and Science.
While, it was also surveyed how the participants commute to school. The one-sample t-test revealed that
the number of sit-ups performed by the sixth-grade boys and girls as well as the standing broad jump of
the sixth-grade boys were significantly higher than the national average. The 50-m sprint time of the fifthgrade
girls was significantly inferior than the national average. In addition, the 20-m shuttle run of the
fifth-grade boys and the fifth- and sixth-grade girls were significantly lower than the national average.
Furthermore, in all groups, the 50-m sprint time and 20-m shuttle run of the participants in this study were
inferior than the national average, although the differences for some groups were not-significant. Then, it
was found that the participants in this study was inferior in variables associated with running. While,
unpaired t-test found the non-significant difference in all variables between bus and walking. The result of
the non-significant difference between groups indicated that the mean of commute did not mainly affect to
the physical fitness tests. However, this study was conducted as a cross-sectional research, so that it was
not evaluated directly whether physical fitness is affected by mean of commute. Therefore, as future
research, it is required to examine in longitudinal research design.
The purpose of this study was to clarify what kind of warm-up exercises current elementary school
teachers administer for children. A questionnaire survey on warm-up exercises for physical education
classes was conducted on 118 elementary school teachers. The results of the analyses were as follows:
1) Many of the current elementary school teachers are doing formal warm-up exercises such as running,
physical exercises and stretching.
2) Many of the current elementary school teachers chose warm-up exercises based on the warm-up
exercises which they practice on their own.
3) The kind of warm-up exercises administered by elementary school teachers depends on their subject
specialization(physical education or other subjects).
We identified biological parameters based on cross-sectional height data in Mongolia and analyzed theheight growth of Mongolian youth. We then attempted to elucidate the relationship between physical growth and economic conditions in Mongolia from a comparison with minority ethnic groups in China，by testing physical maturity. The results showed early maturation in physical growth in ethnic groups distributed in economically developed regions. A trend was also seen for later maturation and tall height，which is a characteristic of Caucasoid people in northwestern ethnic groups. A large difference was seen in the age at the maximum peak velocity（MPV）in height growth even between geographically close ethnic groups in the south，and adult heights were shorter than those in northern ethnic groups. From it is thought that the surge in height growth during puberty is closely related to innate racial factors，and that in addition to racial factors，adult height is greatly affected by later external factors such as nutritional
intake. Therefore，if the biological parameter of adult height can be determined in Mongolia and Chinese
minority ethnic groups，the effects on physical growth in minority groups could be estimated from
economic growth stagnation and delayed infrastructure development when making comparisons with the
Han Chinese living in the southern coastal regions of China. It would then be presumed that for Mongolian
youth，similar to Chinese ethnic minorities，delayed infrastructure development due to economic
stagnation affects biological parameters.