A special needs school developed a table marble game, board baseball, and floor reverse for students with muscular dystrophy. In the table marble game, students hit a glass marble toward a donut drawn on the board. In board baseball, students hit the ball on four types of colored boards placed on the floor. In floor reverse, students rolled a ball to get into an area of 16 squares of jointed mats on the floor. The main factors for developing the teaching materials and tools for the students were as follows: 1) To adopt systems that change their small actions to higher-power functions, 2) To create teaching materials that enable students to learn in a group to enhance their communication skills and create interpersonal relationships, 3) To provide auxiliary tools that help students catch the sound of a bat hitting the ball and feel vibrations on their hands, and 4) To change the rules and settings according to the situation by paying attention to student requests.
In this study, the eye movements of subjects appreciating artwork to a black-and-white drawing of a single color were analyzed. The study targeted both students who have not formally received any art education (non-expert) and those who have formally received art education (expert). The line-of-sight targets were (1) a darkly colored part, (2) a lightly colored part, and (3) a part without any drawing. In the part lightly drawn with black ink, the difference in eye movements between expert and non-expert learners and the effects of the presence or absence of explanatory text were noticeable. By presenting the explanatory text, the number of eye fixations in the non-expert and the expert learner increased significantly. The increase was significantly greater for the expert learner than for the non-expert learner. In addition, the expert learners showed significantly longer fixation duration to the target before reading the explanatory text compared to the non-expert learners. However, after reading the explanatory text, fixation duration to the target in the expert learners decreased significantly.
It has been suggested that the conservation of electric current in electric circuits may be misconstrued by sixth-grade students in the " Use of Electricity " unit as a result of the confusion between electric current and electric energy. This study seeks to reduce the number of children who have misconceptions about current flow from the conservation model, which is a scientifically appropriate concept of current flow, after studying a unit of electricity in the sixth grade of elementary school. We developed an electric circuit model teaching resource that distinguishes the concept of current from that of electric energy and enables learners to acquire the scientific concept of current and verify its effectiveness. The results confirmed that the developed teaching materials did not use water, and the number of children who acquired the scientific concept of the conservation of electric current was significantly higher in the class
that used the developed materials.