The present paper reviews research results mostly related to thermal inactivation reaction kinetics that were emanated from work conducted at the present author's laboratory. After completing the review, discussions and future research needs were presented. Discussions include the examination of a widely accepted approach for thermal process evaluation based on the use of a sterilizing value (Fp) . This examination shows that the approach is not valid when the slope (z) of a phantom thermal death time curve and/or the initial curvilinearity parameter (R) of a survivor curve are temperature dependent. The future research needs include reaction kinetic study on thermal lethality enhancement by the thermal shock of microorganisms.
The surface tensions of 6-O-hexanoyl, octanoyl, decanoyl and dodecanoyl L-ascorbates, which were synthesized via the immobilized-lipase-catalyzed condensation of ascorbic acid and the corresponding fatty acids in acetonitrile, were measured at 25°C by the Wilhelmy method at their various concentrations, and the critical micelle concentration, CMC, and the residual area per molecule, a, were evaluated for each acyl ascorbate. The CMC was lower for the ascorbate with a longer aryl chain, while the a values were ca. 0.30 nm2 for all the acyl ascorbates.