Slightly acidified hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), prepared by means of hydrochloric acid electrolysis, was developed. Purpose of that development was to resolve some problems associated with other currently available disinfectants. The SAHW is now officially recognized as a food additive because of its proven biological safety. Bactericidal component of the SAHW is hypochlorous acid, the same as chlorine solution or sodium hypochlorite, but most of the chlorine in the SAHW exists as free hypochlorous acid owing to strictly controlled pH between 5 and 6.5. Thus, the SAHW has strong bactericidal effect even if its chlorine concentration is much lower than that of traditional chloric bactericides. As electrolytic conditions are selected to generate only hypochlorous acid, the SAHW contains little or no harmful by-products. The SAHW, being close to tap water having little taste and odor, has many advantages over traditional disinfectants. The SAHW, because of having few limitations with regard to its applications, is being used increasingly in various industries.
The dried Japanese noodle is one of the most favorable foods in Japan and supplied as the preserved food due to its long shelf life. In the production of dried noodle, the drying process is known to be troublesome but governs the product quality, because strips of fresh noodle are relatively thick and have limited strength to withstand the internal stress caused by rapid drying. Therefore, the controlled humidity drying is necessary to keep the rate balance of evaporation and the internal moisture diffusion. However, the optimal drying conditions are difficult to achieve due to the complexity of operating variables, such as the temperature, humidity, and velocity. In the present study, we regarded the drying of fresh noodle as moisture diffusion phenomena within a solid material. The moisture diffusivity, the effect of drying condition on drying kinetics, and the stress induced by drying were investigated to obtain the technical information about the optimal drying operation. It is expected that this information would be useful for development of the optimal drying operation of Japanese noodle.
The dimensions of a grease trap used in a restaurant were investigated. The size was dependent on the area of the space used for the grease trap rather than the flow rate of the wastewater and oil content. The oil and nitrogen concentrations of sixteen kitchen wastewater samples in a grease trap were measured. Most of wastewater samples contained oil over 0.03g hexane extract·L-1. The highest oil concentration, 2.12g hexane extract·L-1, was observed in the wastewater of the grease trap from a European food restaurant. In all the samples, the nitrogen concentration was extremely low for biological water treatment. To develop an efficient oil decomposition system for the wastewater treatment in an industrial kitchen, the optimum conditions for the oil decomposition by the yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, isolated from the grease trap of a restaurant were examined using artificial wastewater containing soybean oil. The optimum C/N ratio, temperature and pH were 31, 30°C and about 6, respectively. The oil decomposition rate in the actual wastewater of a restaurant was improved with the addition of the nutrients. It was estimated that the initial cell concentration required for perfect decomposition of 10g oil·L-1 for 8 hours might be 33g dry cells·L-1.
LCA inventory data based on input-output tables was used to analyze the relationship between the self-sufficiency rate of food and CO2 emission in Japan. For food item i with the total consumption Ci [M\] and self-sufficiency rate xi, the total amount of CO2 emission is composed of (1) domestic production of i, (2) production of industrial product j to be exported for the import of i, and (3) transportation to export j and import i. According to this model, an effective carbon emission coefficient, σeff, i, j, was calculated for food item i by assuming the industrial item j to be exported. Then, σeff, i, jwas averaged among j proportionally to their amount of annual export statistics and the effective carbon emission coefficient σeff, i was calculated for each food item. Because of the low self-sufficiency rate of food (-40%), the amount of carbon emission was proved to have substantially increased in Japan. The self-sufficiency rate of food based on C-emission is only 13.6% in Japan. The difference between the present C-emission and that by assuming 100% food self-sufficiency easily reached the goal to reduce CO2 emission by COP3. This means that an increase in food self-sufficiency rate can be an effective option to reduce CO2 emission in Japan.
We examined the textural changes such as hardness, porosity, and water absorbency of freeze-dried agar and gelatin using the ice nucleation active bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens NBRC 13559 cells as the heterogeneous ice nuclei and antifreeze proteins (AFPs) . NBRC 13559 cells could easily freeze their hydrogels without supercooling. The hardness of their freeze-dried products using NBRC 13559 cells was less than that using X. campestris NBRC 13551, which dose not possess any ice nucleation activity, and that without the additions. On the other hand, the hardness of their freeze-dried products using AFPs was more than that without the additions. When AFPIII (type III), one of AFPs, was used for only agar, their pore sizes were smaller than those without the additions, thereby decreasing their water absorbencies. When antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) was used for only gelatin, their pore sizes and water absorbencies were similar to that of AFPIII used for the agar. As the pore sizes of the freeze-dried agar using the NBRC 13559 cells were larger than those using the NBRC13551 cells and without the additions, the water absorbency of the freeze-dried agar using the NBRC 13559 cells increased. This report contains the first comparison of the ice nucleation and antifreeze activities for the textures of freeze-dried gelatin and agar.
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