Antifungal activity of aqueous garlic extract against various yeasts isolated from seafoods was examined from the viewpoint of food sanitation. The aqueous garlic extract was prepared from homogenate of fresh garlic bulbs blended with an equal weight of water. This mixture was then sterilized by filtration. Eighteen different species of the five genera, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon, were used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extract against these yeasts were 0.31 to 1.25% by agar dilution method using YM agar, and the extract was effective in vitro against these yeasts. Survival curves in the presence of garlic extracts were made on the two strains, Cryptococcus laurentii M-3 and Trichosporon cutaneum E-5. The extract showed fungicidal activity against these yeasts. The combined effect of garlic extract and sodium chloride on several yeasts were also examined. The antifungal activity of the extract was increased by the addition of sodium chloride
Cryptosporidiosis is a disease caused by oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. In June 1996, about 1, 000 people in Saitama prefecture, Japan, became ill with a prolonged diarrhea after drinking water contaminated with oocysts of C. parvum. Therefore, waterborne cryptosporidiosis is gathering concern in Japan. The diagnostic methods are acid-fast stain and immunofluorescence of oocysts of C. parvum in feces. However, the methods for the concentration and detection of the oocysts in water from private supplies and river water involving many impurities have not been established in Japan. In this study, using the method for the concentration of viruses from water using cellulose, we examined whether the oocysts in river water can be concentrated with DEAEcellulose and eluting solution. The most efficient eluting solution was the solution consisting of 1ml Tween 80 and 10g NaCl in 1l pH 9 water.