Fish Pathology
Online ISSN : 1881-7335
Print ISSN : 0388-788X
ISSN-L : 0388-788X
Volume 8 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Kiyokuni MUROGA, Yasuhiko JO, Masayuki YANO
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A bacterial disease named“Sekiten-byo”(red spot disease)of eels occurred in 1971 in Shizuoka and Tokushima Prefectures, and the causative bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas anguilliseptica by WAKABAYASHI and EGUSA(1972).
    The present authors investigated the occurrence of the disease in Tokushima prefecture in 1972.
    1) In spring(AprilMay), the epizootic was prevalent in eel culture ponds in this prefecture, and it ceased in summer(August), but in autumn(October)it recurred. This vicissitude was confirmed by field observations and recognitions of the pathogen (Ps.anguilliseptica). It is supposed on the basis of the field observations and results of experimental infection that the disease occurs when water temperature of ponds is below 20°C, and ceases when it rises to2627°C.
    2) This infection occurred preferably in the Japanese eels(Anguilla japonica)and in ponds which contain some amounts of saline.
    3) Especially in spring, some eels were infected not only with Ps. anguilliseptica but also with Aeromonas liquefaciens and Vibrio anguillarum.
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  • Kiyokuni MUROGA, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 10-25
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The biochemical characteristics of 32 strains of Vibrio anguillarum (one was eliminated finally from the species) isolated by the present authors from Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), eel(Anguilla japonica), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), Kampachi (Seriola purpurascens), and gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) were studied. The results were compared with characteristics of V. anguillarum reported by several workers and the descriptions of “V. anguillarum” proposed by HENDRIE et al. As a results, it was suggested that the type descriptions of “V. anguillarum” given by HENDRIE et al. are ex-cessively restricted and require a slight modification. In addition a discussion was made on the significance of differences in pathogenicity to fish among the three species of “V. anguil-larum”.
    From a study of comparing V. anguillarum with V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, it was shown that V. anguillarum could be distinguished from V. parahaemolyticus in the following points; arginine lysine decarboxylation, sucrose fermentation, NaCl tolerance(710%), MR VP test, and 2, 3-butanediol production, and could be distinguished from V. alginolyticus in colonial form, arginine lysine decarboxylation and NaCl tolerance, In addi-tion, these three vibrios differed from each other in experimental pathogenicity for eels and mice.
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  • Yukio SEJIMA, Tamotsu MORIOKA, Kazuo KANAI, Hisanobu HOSOYA, Sanya SUZ ...
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 26-31
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hideo P. OKA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 32-36
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    White Spot Disease broke out among youngs (total length: 8-10 cm) of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in May 1970. The fishes had been reared in newly constructed ponds near Lake Hamana, Shizuoka Prefecture.
    In diseased fishes, covered with numerous white spots all over the body surface, the parasites Ichthyophthirius multifilis were also found situated in the gills and in the wall of the oral cavity.
    According to histological observations, swellings, and necrobiosis, were recognized in the cutis at the site of infection. In the gills, the parasites located under the respiratory epithorium in which augmentation was not observable, while, in the oral cavity, the epitherium augmented as in the skin.
    Although Ichthyophiriasis, with a heavy mortarity, was once observed among youngs of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica reared in a pond at the Hamanako Branch, Shizuoka Pref. Fish. Expt. Stn. in April 1969, it is a generally accepted fact that the Japanese eel has a low sensitivity to this parasite.
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  • Hideo P OKA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 37-40
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some 25 spores of Myxidium sp. were found out in an “Ich” Ichthyophthirius multifilis parasitic to the skin of a young cultured Euro pen eel Anguilla anguilla. The host eel was observed to be infested with not only a number of “Ich”s but also Myxidiian spores in the skin.
    Two other “Ich”s were found out which carried in their body digested Myxidiian spores. A few Myxidiian spores were found in the surface layer of the dermis just beneath one of the “Ich”s.
    These Myxidiian spores found in the “Ich”, seem to be taken by the ciliate while they were coming out from the surface of the dermis in the skin of the host.
    (The present author observed that matured spores of the present Myxidium come out from the skin of living eels. The detail will be reported elsewhere.)
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  • Teruo MIYAZAKI, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 41-43
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Teruo MIYAZAKI, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 44-47
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Teruo MIYAZAKI
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 48-54
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Norio FUNAHASHI, Teruo MIYAZAKI, Saburoh S. KUBOTA, Masao TOMINAGA, Ju ...
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 55-63
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Norio FUNAHASHI, Teruo MIYAZAKI, Saburoh S. KUBOTA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 64-67
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: October 26, 2009
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  • Norio FUNAHASHI, Teruo MIYAZAKI, Saburoh S. KUBOTA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 68-77
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Kishio HATAI, Toshikazu HOSHINA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 78-82
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The sensitivities to malachite green, formalin and copper sulfate of Chondrococcuc columnaris isolated from fishes suffering from columnaris disease which include eel (Anguilla japonica), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. Experiments for malachite green and formalin were carried out by the serial dilution method in liquid media. Experiments for copper sulfate were studied with disc method. The results obtained were shown in the Tables 2 to 6. The minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I. C.) level of malachite green for three strains was 1:2, 000, 000.MIC levels of formalin for GE-8 and OCR-1 strains were 1:60, 000 and that of formalin for GC-2 strain was 1:90, 000. The sensitivity to copper sulfate was 1:64, 000 for GE-8 strain., 1:32, 000 for OCR-1 strain and 1 : 128, 000 for GC-2 strain.
    From these results, it was suggested that C. columnalis has high sensitivities to malachite green, formalin and copper sulfate in vitro.
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  • Takashi AOKI, Tsutomu WATANABE
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 83-90
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Various drug resistant bacteria were isolated from the ponds-water and the intestinal tracts of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri f. irideus) obtained at Okutama in Tokyo Metropolis, at Fujinomiya in Shizuoka Prefecture and at Akashina in Nagano Prefecture from December, 1970 to June, 1971. Drug resistance patterns of isolated bacteria and whether or not their resistance is due to R factors were investigated. Resistance patterns and fi type of R factors isolated from these bacteria were tested.
    1) The multiple-drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli were isolated from the water of ponds as well as from the intestinal tracts of rainbow trout.
    2) The frequency of occurrence of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the rainbow trout pond was varible from pond to pond. The average percentages of chloramphenicol (CM)- and tetracycline (TC)- resistant bacteria (grown on nutrient agar containing 25μg/ml of CM or TC) isolated from the ponds water were 7.9 and 5.0, respectively and those from the intestinal tracts of rainbow trouts were 1.5 and 22.1, respectively.
    3) Fairly low proportions of drug resistant bacteria that is, 4 out of the 188 strains examined (2.1%) were found to carry transferable R factors.
    4) Considerable fractions of strains of, Achromobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and unidentified Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the ponds-water and the intestinal tracts of rainbow trout were drug resistant and some of the drug resistant strains of Citrobacter, E. aerogenes and E. cloacae were found to carry R factors.
    5) All the R factors detected had markers resistance to sulfonamides, streptomycin and TC and classified into fi- type.
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  • Hisatsugu WAKABAYASHI, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 91-97
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Monthly investigations of bacterial infections among pond-cultured eels in the Yoshida area of Shizuoka prefecture were carried out in 1972 to 1973 (Table 1). Eels examined were collected from the ponds where mass mortalities had occurred just before each investigation. Isolation of bacteria from blood, liver, kidney, spleen and/or gill was attempted, using nutrient agar medium (Difco) and Cytophaga agar medium (modified).
    Among five established eel-pathogenic bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica and Chondrococcus columnaris were isolated in these investigations, but not Vibrio anguillarum. Total incidences of the four bacterial infections and the mixed infections were calculated (Table 2 and 3). Seasonal distribution of each bacterial infection was shown in Fig. 1. Distribution of the eels of which any bacteria were not isolated from internal organs had a partiality for winter (Fig. 2). Most of the diseased eels in winter had symptoms of “branchionephritis”, from gill of which a myxobacterium was frequently isolated.
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  • Masao YODA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 98-101
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Kishio HATAI, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 102-105
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Kenji NAKAJIMA, Syuzo EGUSA
    1973 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 106-110
    Published: September 30, 1973
    Released: February 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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