The first life table in Japan was constructed by using the data for l891-98. Since then seven complete life tables were constructed at irregular intervals; and since 1949 abridged life tables were published annually. By using these life tables a generation life table was computed by the following procedure: It was assumed that 100, 000 babies were born simultaneously at the beginning of 1891 and exposed to the infant mortality (q0) shown in the first life table; when they became one year old in the next calendar year, they were exposed to q1 in that life table, and so on : When they became 8 years old in 1899 they were exposed to q8 in the second life table for 1899-1903, and so on. For the blank calendar years for which no life tables were constructed, the mortality rates required were estimated by weighted means derived from tables for preceding and following calendar years, more emphasis being laid on the nearer one. By this procedure lx, dx, qx, px could be computed till the age 65. As there are a considerable number of persons who were born in 1891 and have attained the age 65 this year (1956) still living today, ex can not be computed. But if it is assumed that the persons 65 years old today would have the same expectation of life in the future as e65 shown in 1955 life table (this assumption seems not very absurd), then ex of the generation life table for the people born in 1891 can be computed. This assumption was adopted in this life table. The result is shown in Table and Graphs in the text.
The Division of Health Care and Nursing was established at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo in 1953, for the 'purpose of educating prospective nurses and multi-purpose health workers who have enough understanding and knowledge of medicine and public health, to be able to work in the field of nursing and public health for the sake of individuals and communities. The Curriculum of this division is composed of two parts, namely, the course of general education for biology and the course of specialization for health care and nursing. The former comprises cultural sciences, social sciences, natural sciences, foreign languages, and physical education, 1500 hours being assigned to this part. The latter part is given for the purpose of specialization after passing through the former. About 2500 hours are scheduled for this part: Public Health is taught in the course of the specializatipp, The speci* gravity, of Public Health is 19% of the total credit hours including, general education, and about 30%, of the professional subjects, The of the specialized subjects consist of basic meclicine, clincai metdiine, nursing arts, and clinical nursing. c The breakdown of the public health study is as follows: Lectures 240. hours Laboratory. practice 225 hours Field practice 225; hours Seminar 90 hours 780 tours The contents of the public health studies carried out follow: 1. Public Health (General Part) (1) Human Ecology Biota-biotop System Autoecology Synecology Structure of Population Analysis of Environmental Physiology (a) Homesotasis (b) Maximum Permissible Limit (c) Physical, and chemical Environment. Biological Environment Social Environment (d) Genetics and Nutrition (2) Statistical, Reasoning, (3) Epidemiology (a) Principles of Epidemiology, (b) Descriptive, Epidemiology Theoretical Epidemiology, Field, Epidemiology (4) Sanitation. (a) Environmental Sanitation (b) Food and Milk Sanitation (5) Medical Technology (6) Social Technology II. Public Health (Special, Part) (1) Public Health Methodology (a) Health Education (b) Health Administration (c) Health Service (2) Community Health Practice Urban Health Rural Health School Health Occupational Health (3) Research and Seminar. (1) Field epidemiological survey (2) Field study on intestinal parasites control (3) Intoxications chemical due to methaemoglobin formation (4) Care of premature infants (5) Technic of computation and calculation (6) Morphinism and other addictions (7) Eugenic counseling (8) Leprosy control (9) Tuberculosis control etc. The background philosophy of the curriculum was established on the following basis. (1) All the medical and health activities must be performed on the basis of public health in a wide sense ; accordingly all the medical and health personnel must by all means be public-health minded, so that the students who will later participate in these activities should obtain an adequate knowledge and comprehension of public health during their university education. (2) Either in a world-wide sense, or in a domestic sense especially, the most important philosophy of medical and health activity is to be communitydirected and patient centered.