This is the digest of the speech entitled “ Can We Decrease Suicide in the Younger Generation? ” in an occaision of the General Congress of the Japanese Society of Race Hygiene, 1958. The discussion was mainly carried out from the stand point of educational psychology.
The writer investigated the birth in Nishiura Village (Tagata-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture), and the results obtained as follows; 1. As in villages where people marry at an early age, this village has a large number of birth in average. As the food situation was bad before the War, the death rate was high. 2. The first child is born within 16 months after marriage, and the pregnancy rate seems to be high. Second and 3rd children leave thevillage, so increase in population is not marked. 3. The child bearing ability of women in this village is limited under 48 years of age. 4. During the Meiji period, due to venereal diseases which were prevalent in fishing villages, the birth rate was low. Since theTaisho days the birth became stabilized as the results of the betterment of the standard of living and of the cultural advancement of the villagers.
This is to report the epidemiological investigation of banal infections of the respiratory tract, especially of common cold. That is, the tracing investigation of these diseases was made on 497 persons of 115 families in a certain area of Tokyo by inquiries per family once a week for one year from Feb. 19, 1956. Results were as follows. 1) The average frequency of affections in each person was 5 times a year, but there was some difference depending on sex and age, and also individual difference was great. The existence of those who were frequently affected by these diseases was proved logically. It was also clarified that the distribution of incidence in people of 25 54 years old suggested a certain rule.. 2) The infection was more often carried into a family by the younger than the older. The secondary attack rate was comparatively low though there was some difference depending on age regardless of the age of index case. This fact proved that some of these discases were fairly non-infectious. 3) It was also proved that coldness was an important factor to accelerate the propagation of these diseases. Clinical symptoms and therapeutic states were clarified.
Generally night soil is treated by the method of heating process, but it is digested more rapidly by heating than let it stand without heating, because making safe and stabilization are promoted. Then, pour the raw night soil that mixed digested sludge into each cylinder of 5 liters in the proportion of 20%, and investigated about the prosperity and decay of the B. coli group, enterococcus group, L. acidophilus, and pathogenic bacteria was thrown into the each cyclinder of 5 liters, that were leaved at constant temperature of 37.., 30.., 25.. and 10... Moreover, making the experiment of pilot plant for continuous treatment and socalled pilot plant for separative strata treatment, follwing results were obtaind. 1. According to experiment of batch test, degeneration of the night soil is rapidly at 37°C, and survival period of B. coli group, L. acidophilus, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella para-typhi B, Komagome B III are only within a week. 2. Accoding to experiment of continuous treatment of night soil by pilot plant at 37°C, B. coli group indicated decrease of 102-3 grade, but still ascent of effect is expected by improvement of structure and operation. 3. Night soil digestion by so-called pilot plant for separative strata treatment combines both gond point of continuous treatment and batch test, so that B. coli group decrease in early stage, and it is treated certainly, and a large quantity night soil can be digested in a short period. 4. Bacteriological examination of digestion tanks in different parts shows various kinds of satisfactory results and not so much.
To exterminate intestinal bacteria in preserved night soil, the temperature affects strongly, but it seemed that the synthetic action of different factor of ph, nutrition, antivirus, bacteriophage etc. would be important. About the abstracted substance which showed the bactericidal effect against different intestinal bacteria in night soil, the follwing results were reached. 1. It is not solidificated by heating at 100°C, and is not separated by HCI at pH 2, 0. 2. It is not absorbed with the ion exchange resin, Amberlite IRC 50. 3. It is not separated in the alcoholic solution. 4. It passes easily cellopfane dialystic membrane. 5. It is especially effective to Salmonella typhi and Shigella shigae. 6. As a result of qualitative examinations, sugar and amino-acid were found positive.