From the analysis of the trend of mortality by malingnant neoplasms since 1900, and. from the survey of 14, 800 persons died by malignant neoplasms for 5 years, i. e., from. 1955, the following conclusions were abtained. 1. The death rate by malignant neoplasms is steadily rising after the second world war, and this rise is crisp, when compared with general death rate. This trend is. more remakable in Aichi Prefecture than in all Japan. 2. The mortality by malignant neoplasms of respiratory organs of males went up, remarkably, and the mortality by malignant neoplasms of uteri was declining. 3. The regional accumulation of malignant neoplasms seems to by paralel with. that of stomachs. The high rate regions are observed amass in the alluviums of Kiso and Yahagi river basins, while in the Toyokawa river basin the low regions assembles. 4. The curve of death rate of malignant neoplasms, showed in age-classes of males and that of females cross in the age-class. of 20-25 years, and 50-55 years. 5. The frequent occurrence of deaths by malignant neoplasms of stomach was to be noted. 6. Generally speaking, the life durations of the operateds from the beginning of the disease to death were longer the those of not-operated. Such elongation was not observed in the. cases of the operations of breasts. 7. The number of deaths in hospitals were notable in the cases of young patients, . while it diminishes following the rise of ages of patients. 8. Generally speaking, the life durations from the operation to death are very short. From the survey of 5, 991 patients of malignant neoplasm who visited the clinics and. hospitals in Aichi Prefecture, the following conclusions were abtained.
1. The regional accumulation of the new patints and the treated by clinics and hospitals showed the trend as same as that of death. 2. The morbidity rate and that of the treated are higher in females than in males. This characteristics was found to be in reverse in the death rate. 3. Considering from the correlation of death rate, morbidity rate and rate of treated, the treatments of the malignant neoplasms of breasts and uteri seemed to be performed relatively earlier than those of other areas. 4. The death rates, the morbidity rates and the rates of treated, of malignant neoplasms of eyes, and those of leucemias showed no noteworth differences, and this fact seemed to reveal the particular malignant of these deceases.
The author has investigated the annual quantity of works in the 32 nd year, of Showa 1957) of a farm houshold in Munakata village, Imba-gun, Chiba Prefecture (ar (ea of the rice-field; 18.4 tan, field; 9.5 tan, workers; 4). The results were as follows: 1) The total number of days of the annual works was 8810 among which 446.0 were needed for main crops and 439.4 for other crops. Both were almost equal. 2) The top of the quantity of works was 265.6 man days of rice-crop (including 162.0 supplied by the employees), which was 59.6% of the whole work of main crops. So 23.3 days per tan were necessary. 3) Surveying monthly the quantity of works, May and June are the busiest months, and September is busier than other months. These phenomena are connected with their main crops. And the 3 months above-mentioned could be called “the busiest season ” of this village. Their most leisure season was December, January, and February; and March, Nouember were rather leisure. 4) As to the workers, 2 men (husband, the eldest son) were engaged in almost the same work. As the eldest daughter would go to school in the leisure seasons, the quantity of her work was small. The rate of their annual works was as follows:
One standard farm family was selected at swamp region in Chiba Prefecture. Donagio value was measured in urine collected early in the morning and after the work to examine the fatigue through Donagio-Sato reaction on farm workers in a family through a year. Following is the result obtained at this survey. 1. D. R. value in urine early in the morning is increased with the increased amount of work and resudual fatigue of previous day. 2. D. R. value after the work showed high value with the increased amount of work. The highest value was seen in busy farm season in spring, then the next is A?ril and summer. In the farm idle season of autumn it was as same as in summer, but its distribution was inclined to be more intensive than summer. 3. D. R. value during the season planting rice was examined in 10 persons for 10 days. The mean value for 10 persons days was ranged between 13.9 and 13.0 and there was no tendency of distribution, but astringency was seen. On the other hand in the same meaning the same examination was done during the idle farm season of November. The mean value on each individual ranged between 9.2 and 9.9 and there was none exceeded 10. From above mentioned fact it was understood that D.R.S was reliable to show the fatigue of farm work.
From ancient time, it is well acknowledged fact among scholars that the Japanese race is composed of races of various kinds which are mixed with each other. But however the Japanese may be composed of many races, the characteristic of constitutional anthropology which takes part in the formation does not disappear easily. Therefore, it lead us to know the similarity of constitutional anthropology between both races to compare the result of studies on constitutional anthropology in some region with the result of that in the other region. For this purpose, the author carried out measuring of vital body for extremities, head face and body in regard to five-hundred numbers of the native in Yonezawa, prefecture Yamagata districts during the period of a month from April to May, 1957. The present paper describes the Gist of the results of measuring of vital body which, have been studied in detail basing on the 24 heads of measuring rate and index. As the conditions of measuring, for the purpose above mentioned, those people are excluded from this measuring who are considered as the temporary residents of late, or man of abnormal constitutions at a glance. The measuring is limited to adult men ofnative-born from 20 to 45 years old who have settled down in this region during more over three generations ancestor to descendants. The author brings to light on the racial relations in accordance with the observations comparing the native of Yonezawa region. With natives of the other regions which had as much minutely been investigated. The author comes to concluded as follows: - (1) The native of Yonezawa region belongs to middle class of height in comparison with a native of the other regions which Prof. Koya had measured. The medial rateis 159.10 cm and it belongs to little class of height classification made by Mr. Martin. As a whole tendency, they are similar to Hokkaido-Ainu, natives of Hyuga and Tcjkaii districts. (2) On the comparative-length of upper-extremities, those who belong to middle arm: according to Iwanovski's classification occupy 55.60%, that is half the number. (3) The maximum length of head is 185.46 0.21 mm. The maximum breadth of head is 153.02 0.20 mm and the ratio, that is, the index of length-breadth of head, is 81.27-F-0.11mm. Namely, the index indicate the middle grade of short head and it is similar to natives of Sagami-heiya, Shinshu-Azumi, and Hida-districts. (4) The breadth of zygomatic arch is 144.15 0.18 mm. The index of the breadth, of zygomatic arch is 79.03 - 0.14. In accordance with the face classification, it belongs to the middle type which is the most popular in Japanese people. (5) The morphological face index is 85.47 0.24mm. The rate is similar to nativesof Yamato district, Hokkaido-Ainu, and Ettyu d: stricts. On the classification of facial type in accordance with this index; the middle type. occupies half the number and next to it, the nallow type occupies a good number. (6) On the mean of type difference, when compared it with the rate of the other: districts, it become clear that the native of Yonezawa region shows the racial similarity to natives of Okunoto, Koriyama, north part of Sinshu, Hida, Kaga mountain region. (mean of type difference is less than 8.0mm) (7) In the case that mean of type difference is more than 15.0 mm. The south-Korean and Hokkaido-Ainu show large disparity at the racial similarity.
In Japan, dysentery-bacilli have sedentaried in their linings. I think that their enveroment and their dietary lives have given many chances for the infecting of dysenterybacilli. And so, I examined the condition from the movement of E. coli of their stools, that is, I tried to examine the distribution of the same serological type of E. coli of their stools in members of one family. For this porpose, I took farm-families as the object. Numbers of population mere 819 and Numbers of families mere 172. The result is as follows. 1) The degree of the family-accumulation having the same type of E. coli in their stools was 28.5%. 2) The degree of the apperance which was over 50% of the same type in the same family-members was 14.7%. 3) The degree found the same type from the same body by twice examination was 19.3%. 4) On the view of typing of children-stools the effect from their mother's coli-type was more than from their father's coli-type. 5) 50% of children befor 4 years old showed the same coli-type in their stools as ther mather's type.
The present authors studied on the corrective measure in Likert technique in comparing the strength of psychological motive among various groups with different value systems. The principles of this corrective measure are as follows: 1) Calculate the corrective coefficient (K). a: sum of the maximum weighting score which have been categorized for confirmation. b: sum of the maximum weighting score which have been categorized for negation. 2) Correct the scoring rate (Crude Index: C.I.) by means of I. The crude Index for each person have been calculated by a'/b'. a' is the sum of obtaining score for each person who have been categolized for confirmation, and b' is the sum of obtaining score for each for negation. The Corrective Index (Cr. I.) can be obtained by a'/b'. E1/K. This corrective measure would make it easy to compare scores in various groups as shown in an example of Morale survey by Likert technique.
Nowadays there is a considerable agreement among the opinion of various investi gators with respects to the origin or ancestors of Japanese people. It is generally considered that Japanese people is consisted of a mixed blood of the Ainu race, tl-e northern Tunguses, the Indonesia races, etc. The constitutional-anthropological features of races concerned with the formation of Japanese people were inheritated from onegeneration to another as the rule of heredity, and the marks of the features might not disappear easily. Consequently, scientific investigations on constitutional-anthropologicar features of some district inhabitants together with comparative studies on the characteristic features of the inhabitants with those of the other districts inhabitants lead to make clear of the degrees of near relations among these inhabitants as well as the ancestal fetures of each district inhabitants, and thus the history of the formation of Japanese people become clear. The present report givee data of our constitutional-anthropological studies on inhabitants of Aira district in Kagoshima Prefecture of Japan, together with someremarks about tribal relations to inhabitants of the other districts in Japan. In thesestudies in 1957, our detailed investigation of 25 items involving bion-retries of body, extremities, herd and face were undertaken with 466 inhabitants in Aira district where lived Hayato (a vigorous, speedy and stout man) who is described as an descendant of HONOSUSARINOMIKOTO in a myth of Kagoshima Prefecture of Japan. The subjects selected for this investigation were confirmed to be the adult men of 20-45 years in age, whose families have settled there for more than 3 generations. The characteristic features of the inhabitants of Aira district were different from those of inhabitants whose ancestors migrated to Tohoku, Hokkaido and the northern districts of Japan. The length-width index of head in the former inhabitants showed to be 82.98+0.17 and to be near to a wide-head type, where as that in the latter inhabitants indicated to be a long-head type.
I have, from the standpoint of constitutional anthropology, made a detailed survey of 557 adult males between 20 to 49 years of age, inhabitants of the eastern region of Saitama Prefecture. Those chosen as object of research were those who have permanently resided in the said district for over three generations, excluding those who were affected by illness or those who have undergone change through circumstances. That is to say, 12 features were directly, and 2 were indirectly measured and from among them 11 varieties of ratio and exponents were calculated, and a comparative study made in regard to 25 items. A comparison with inhabitants of other districts according to M. T. D. was made, and it was found as a result that the inhabitants of eastern Saitama Prefecture reveal a racial likelihood to those of Shinahû-Jyoina, Bicchu, Izumo, Miyakejima Shinstriû-Azumi, Yamanashi-Koma, and Kai districts all showing less than 5.0 M.T.D.. On the other hand, the inhabitants of Echigo Higashi-gamawara, Shirakawa Etchiû Tonami, Etchû Fumi districts, North Korea, Shômai, and the Ainu race of Hokkaido, reveal a big racial difference of over 11.0 M.T.D.. In general, the inhabitants of the eastern district of Saitama Prefecture reveal a strong likeness to the inhabitants of Kai, and Shinshiû, both situated along the same mountain range, and are related to their anthropological type ; while racially, they are closely related to the inhabitants of Izumo and Bicchu. Studying these with the addition of Yamato (M.T.D. 5.18) and central Korea (M.T.D. 5.90) it is worthy of note that they correspond historically, with the old legends and oral traditions, as well as the fact, that the name Shiragi of the Shiragi-gôri originates in central Korea where a comparatively close likeness is to be found.
Conclusion : Using grown-up rabbits, the writer got chronic CCl4 toxicosis group by repeated buttock hypodermic injection of CC14, each time 0.025 cc, 0.05 cc, 0.1 cc per kg, twice a week, for 2 months or so, and another group got by injection of 25 mg/10 cc calcium mesotartrate, simultaneously with repeated injection of CC14, 0.05 cc, 0.1 cc per kg. The observation of these two groups on 'body weight, serum-elctrolytic quality, icteric index, hemoglobin, protein, etc. has led to the following results : 1) On body weight ; Compared with the natural increase of that of contrasting group, CC14 toxicosis group showed rather decrease, but Calcium Mesotartrate injected group proved to have controlling effect on the decrease of body weight. 2) On serum-electrolytic quality; CC14 toxicosis group showed contra-relative phenomena against all kinds of ca, can, all kinds of mg, p, but by the injection of Calcium Mesotartrate, these contra-relative phenomena were observed to be inclined to disappear. 3) On hserum protein; CC14 toxicosis group showed remarkable lowering, but Calcium Mesotartrate injected group controlled the lowering, showing numerical value near to that of contrasting group. 4) On hemoglobin index ; CC14 toxicosis group showed rather low numerical value, but Calcium Mesotartrate injected group showed numerical value near to that of contrasting group. 5) On serious cases index ; CC14 toxicosis group continued to show high numerical value, and after 4 weeks or so, kept the almost fixed high numerical value, but Calcium Mesotartrate group was observed to be inclined to improve the numerical value. Summing of these above is as follows ; In case of chronic CC14 toxicosis, ca++n and all kinds of mg, are observed to stand in contra-relation and by administering of Calcium Mesotartrate, the writer has noticed a possibility of improving liver-disorder. Therefore, the writer has found this medical substance (Calcium Mesotartrate) to be very promising towards the cure of other kinds of liver-disorder
Generally speaking, the mortality for cerebral apoplexy in Miyagi Prefecture is higher in the agricultural districts than in the maritime areas. The present author, in consideration of this fact, selected a farming village (Village A hereunder) and a fishing village (Village B hereunder) in the Prefecture for a closer survey of the living conditions, the incidence to hypertension and the mortality for cerebral apoplexy in these villages in comparison. Besides, the effect of the periodical examinations, patient administration and the campaign for improvement in living conditions, especially alimentary conditions, in Village A kept up for these 5 years for fighting and preventing hypertension and apoplexy was also reviewed. The results were in summary as follows. 1. The crude, the mid-age and the age-adjusted death rates for apoplexy were all the highest in the inland rice-producing farming districts, followed by the urban areas and the maritime areas in descending order. 2. In the comparative survey by communal divisions, the mortality for apoplexy was correlated positively with the area of paddy fields and the rice production in the respective communes (counties, cities, towns and villages), positively with the percentage of farmers and negatively with the percentages of workers in commercial and service businesses among the population. 3. The rate of death for apoplexy and the frequency of hypertension were both higher in the Village A than in the Village B selected for the survey. Especially, I found the general level of blood pressure above normal in younger age-classes already in the agricultural village. 4. The dietary habits are very different in farming and fishing villages. In the former, overconsumption of polished rice in the general tendency, wheat and barley, potatoes and sea-weeds being only sparsely eaten, causing deficiency in vitamins A and C, besides, table salt tends to be too largely consumed here. 5. The climate in farming district in Mryagi Prefecture shows rather vehement seasonal fluctuations, temperatures below 0C being frequently recorded in winter, but in the fishing districts, the climate is more mild, sub-zero frigidity being rarely recorded. In heating facilities there is little to choose between agricultural and piscatorial districts, stoves being rarely used, and the indoor temperature being largely influenced dy the outdoor temparature. 6. The hours of labor are longer and the times for recesses and sleep are shorter in the farming than in the fishing villages, works assigned to women are manifold, both in rural and maritime districcts, the womenfolk being subject to labor hours as long as those of men. A high level of blood pressure, however, was noticed in primary school children below laboring age already, in the agricultural village surveyed. 7. Drinking water tended to acidity in Village A but to alkalinity in Village B. 8. The soli too tended to acidity in Village A and to alkalinity in Village B.
A 36 Race Hygiene stoves being rarely used, and the indoor temperature being largely influenced dy the outdoor temparature. 6. The hours of labor are longer and the times for recesses and sleep are shorter in the farming than in the fishing villages, works assigned to women are manifold, both in rural and maritime districcts, the womenfolk being subject to labor hours as long as those of men. A high level of blood pressure, however, was noticed in primary school children below laboring age already, in the agricultural village surveyed. 7. Drinking water tended to acidity in Village A but to alkalinity in Village B. 8. The soli too tended to acidity in Village A and to alkalinity in Village B. 9. Among' the hypertensives who had been detected in 1954 in the two villages and thence were re-examined in the three following years, about half showed unchanged blood pressure level, but the frequency of aggravated hypertension was higher in Village B left without instructions against hypertension, while the frequency of alleviated hyper-tension was higher in Village A where anti-hypertension campaign was instituted. 10. Our efforts at early detection of hypertenison and patient administration by peri-odical mass-examination of residents in Village A and at instructing the general village population on improvement of their living conditions, especially, their dietary habits, were apparently rewarded by a confirmed lowering in the mortality for cerebral apoplexy and the frequency of hypertensive patients. This result seems to suggest that a similar beneficent result may be achieved by striving for improvement of living conditions and by suitable attention to hypertensive patients in the farming villages of Tohoku District, known for high frequency of hypertension, too.