In 1956, a mass-examination of cardiovascular disorder were conducted on the 390 persons of the aged over 60 years old who lived in a residential quarter of T . Ward, Yokohama City. Ten years later, that is in 1966, a cohort study was made on the 244 people whose fate were known on the relationship between death and the clinical results obtained in the foregoing medical examination. As far as the total number of death in ten years is concerned, it was observed that the examined group is lower in the mortality rate than the non-examined group and that there is a difference between the two groups also in the mortality by the cause of death . As for the relationship between death and the clinical test results, it was observed that mortality rate is higher in those who showed hypertension, abonormal findings in the electro-cardiogram and positive reaction of urinary protein at the time of the examination and that the mortality rate tends to become slightly higher also in those who showed abnormal findings in the f undus oculi . As for the number of survival years after the examination, there were many cases of early death due to cardiac troubles particularly in those who showed positive reaction of protein in urine.
Studies were conducted with the visiting to 580 households in the urban districts of Tokyo, Yokohama and Kawaguchi in order to clarify the features and problems of the health and medical care, Comparing residential, commercial and industrial districts and collective housing area, their features concerning the living and health standards are not always coincide. The morbidity of the collective housing area, especially common colds were noted the highest. Residents of the collective housing area utilise the health service more, especially that for the mothers and children, but it is evident that the lack of function of mutual assistance among the housholds and neighbours due to their small f amilly units. Accordingly it is necessary to organise services and facilities for medical care, social education and nurseries. The medical needs vary according to the districts and living standards, hence some comprehensive health organizations to give suitable administration according to the respective needs of each distict should be established.
Following the school health statistics from the Ministry of Education myopia prevalence rate in elementary school children and secondary school pupils for 10 years from 1955 to 1964 is revealed by 46 prefectures . On the geographic distribution of the prevalence rate, the correlations with natural environmental factors such as annual average temperature and annual insolation duration and with socio-economic factors such as promotion rate of pupils to higher school and living expenditures per person per month are calculated. 1. Myopia prevalence rate is higher in the area of Japan sea side slope from Hokkaido to Hokuriku and in the large cities of the Pacific side, lower in the area which extends from southern Kyushu through Shikoku to Wakayama and in the northern Kanto plain area . 2. The negative correlation with the geographic distribution of annual average temperature is recognized for female. The negative correlation with the geographic distribution of annual insolation duration is found for both sexes, but that for female is higher. 3. The positive correlation with the geogrophic distribution of the promotion rate to the senior secondary school is recognized only for junior secondary school pupils, but the correlation with the promotion rate to the college and the university is found in all male and female groups of all schools. 4. The highest grade positive correlation is found with the geographic distribution of living expenditures per person per month of all consumers for male and female groups of all schools.
Studies on physical growth have been carried out from various angles so far so as to predict the physical standard of the nation. Most of the reports on these studies are based on a mean value of growth over a particular period. The author has observed for five years the growth of school children who have shown a greater value of growth, and come to the conclusion that we may be able to predict the physical standard of the future nation with reference to the above-mentioned reports if there are no particular characteristics in the growth process in this group of children and their physical form. In 38 year of showa (1963), we selectel about 2, 500 boys and girls from the sixth grade in 23 ku's (wards) of Tokyo who were more than +2 above the national mean value in both height and weight, and have compaved their growth processes and physical form, etc., with the mean values of standard children in Tokyo and the rest of the country. By this investigation we have obtained the following results. 1) The group of children who are generally called overgrown children does not indicate an abnormal process of growth, nor are the exceptions. 2) The body of Japanese people in the future will probably develop both in weight and in length of legs. 3) The growth value of the investigated children is considered to be the mean value of children between the year 1990 and 2000, if the present environment does not regress but progresses to a certain extent.