Mass examination was carried out in a rural district (Hirai, Fujioka City) of Gunma Prefecture in order to compare manifestations of cardiovascular diseases between Japanese urban and rural adults. Examinees numbered 1, 285, aged above 40 (559 males and 726 females). In the report are given serum total cholesterol levels and fat deposits (skin-fold thickness) at 31 sites of the body, obtained from 472 subjects (185 males and 287 females) who were screened as having essential hypertension ; and these are compared with the results of similar survey performed by Dr. Suda with 398 essential hypertensive patients of similar ages (233 males and 165 females) in the 1st Tokyo National Hospital. Important findings are as follows : 1) Average serum total cholesterol level is higher in the urban (Tokyo) than in the rural (Hirai) regions without regard to age and sex. 2) Male fat deposits tend to be greater in Tokyo than in Hirai, whereas female ones (especially in abdominal region) can conversely be said greater in Hirai, despite lower serum total cholesterol level. 3) In both regions, serum total cholesterol level rises with age, or remains the same as in the previous decades, whereas fat deposits show marked fall from the respective preceding decades in the fifties in the male and in the seventies in the female. 4) In neither of the regions serum total cholesterol level and fat deposits can be said greater in those whose systolic blood pressure exceeds 200 mmHg.
The author surveyed, besides serum cholesterol level as means of epidemiological study of cardiovascular diseases, distribution of fat deposits (skin-fold thickness) in the body as an index of nutritional state, and compared, between urban and rural rcg ions, changes by age and sex in the latter. Out of the fat deposits at 31 sites of the body of essential hypertensive patients, which were given in Chef irst report, 13 pairs of the right and left symmetrical positions do not show any significant difference between each pair (0.3mm, p>0.05). In search for definitive tendency, fat deposits in total 18 sites 13 on the right side and 5 on the median line were reexamined. 1) In general, fat deposit is thicker in the middle and lower gluteal regions, in upper 1/3 between the navel and pubis, and in the middle between the xiphoid and navel. 2) Fat deposits show nearly the same distribution in both sexes either in Tokyo or in Hirai. Males of 4049 years have most approximate patterns in both regions, but the mean valves are generally higher in Tokyo. Conversely females give higher means in Hirai, especially in abdominal fat deposit ; with regard to the distribution pattern, relative thoracic fat deposit is greater in females of Tokyo. 3) Change by age in Fat deposit was examined in both sexes and both regions with the value in 40-49 years taken as the standard. a) In males In Tokyo, fat deposits in the lumbar region are thin in each age group. In the other regions fat deposits are varying in different age groups. In 5059 years, fat deposit is thin at sites, in 6069 years at 2 sites, and 7079 years at 6 sites. In Hirai, fat deposits are thin in all the abdominal regions except the lumbar in two age groups of 50-59 and 60-69 years in contrast with the results of the Tokyo group. Fat deposit is thin at 11 sites in 50-59 years, at 8 sites in 60-69 years, and at 5 sites in 70-79 years. b) In female In the Tokyo group, fat deposits in 50-59 and 60-69 years are not significantly different from the standard almost in any region. In 70-79 years, fat deposits are decreased in the Upper 1/3 of the tensor side of the upper arm, on the back, breast and gluteal region. The Hirai group showed a similar tendency to the Tokyo group in 50-59 and 60-69 years. In 60-69 years, however, similar, significant decrease is seen in gluteal region, and in 70-79 years fat deposits are low in all the regions except the middle between the navel and rib. Thus it can be said that fat deposit begins to decrease in the gluteal region in 60-69 years, and becoms abruptly smaller in 70-79 years.
The present study aimed at investigating attitudes toward people who had formerly been patients of Tuberculosis (Tb), Mental Disease (MD) or Leprosy (Lep). Three scales were constructed for measuring attitudes toward cured patients of each disease. They consisted of 13 items, which were the same in wording except the name of the disease. In these scales, it was assumed that former patients were now completely recovered and not different from Qrdinary people intheir appearance. Three other scales, measuring knowledge about each disease, were also constructed. Fourty-four male and ninety-six female college students served as Ss. They answered thequestionnaire, including the 3 attitude scales and the 3 knowledge scales, and 2 other for measuring social attitude in general: the F-scale constructed by Adorno et al. and the Sly constructed by Gordon. The results were as follows: 1) Attitudes toward the cured patients were different between the 3 diseases. Ss showed considerably favorable attitudes toward the former patients of Tb, but were unfavorable toward MD and Lep. 2) Ss' attitudes toward the cured patients of the 3 diseases were highly correlated to each other. There was a common element in regard to the f avorableness-unf avorableness of attitudes among them. 3) Generally speaking, many of the Ss responded correctly to items of the knowledge scales. Especially, the proportion of correct respondents was large among items concerning Tb. 4) There were very low correlations between attitudes and knowledge of the corresponding disease. 5) The more authoritarian were their attitudes on the F-scale, the more unfavorable were the attitudes toward people who had recovered from the illness.
This report was made on account of the investigation was done for the degree of concerning among the parents of 115 pupils who were observed the stripes of venesection, in two primary schools located in suburbs. 1) On Okinawa, distribution of venesection has no conection which any medical organization, at this moment, and venesection is held at any places in Okinawa. In farm villages, even infant babys were treated, especially venesection is held nearly 50% of children in island of Okinawa. 2) Abouttreating venesection, most of the case, it was done at the poriod of infant baby, up to 85% were under one year old child. Places of venesection, their own home are very common, two third of phlebotomist are women with aged man or woman. An adviser of venesection is the neighbor, near scapula is the common position and one to three times treating are usual. 3) Reason why venesection was done, is simple concept of parents, which the blood of fetus was bad. And it has no-back ground of race, religion and local custom. Evaluating the progress of venesection, even no medical basis, parents made success more or less for their own purpose. Above all, harmfull effects are unexpectedly low. Those are the reason may be carried on among the people. 4) From now on the degree of concerning venesection, majority of young parents are showing oposit patern for it. In near future, venesection will be fall off in Okinawa.