To elucidate the regional difference of occurence and distribution of vertebral croockedness of senile population, 2649 male and female of the fifth decades and over somatometrically measured in Farm Village H and Fishing Village K of north-east Japan. Vertebral croockedness from the prominence of the 7th cervical vertebral spine to that of the 4th lumbar vertebra was copied using an adjustable curve rule individually. From the curve, the distance of the two prominences, the maximal croockedness index, the position of maximal croockedness and so on were measured or calculated for each kyphotic and lordotic curvature, respectively. (1) The kyphotic indices take normal distribution, and show gradual increment by age in both the villages. And the increments are more rapid at the people of the farm village, especially after the sixth decades. From these indices the senile croockedness characterized as concomitant increase and descendence of the maximal croockedness. (2) The distribution of lordotic indices tends to show skewness from normal distribution to gamma type distribution with the advancement of age classes. And the skewness is greater in the farm village compared to that of the fishing village. From these indices the senile croockedness characterized as the decreasing or vanishing lordosis with the descendence of the maximal croockedness position. These features appears more distinctly for the farm village and female. (3) Significant positive correlation was seen between the maximal croockedness index and the maximal croockedness position for kyphosis (p<0.01), whereas the significant negative correlation was seen between the two parameters of lordosis (p<0.01). (4) Four hundred and seventy seven examinees of both sexes of the sixth and the seventh decades were X-rayed to elucidate the correlation between the croockedness and osteoporotic changes of the lumbar vertebrae. The results show that both the croockedness and the osteoporotic changes in vertebra appeared markedly in the farm village. (5) The nutriment survey processed in both villages revealed that nutritional intake was one of the most valid factors to prevent the earlier occurrence of senile croockedness and osteoporotic changes in the fishing villages, in addition to other factors such as sun shine and the labor habits.
In order to evaluate the health state of inhabitants of a rural district, the patterns of medical consultation using national health insurance were analyzed to research the diseases among inhabitants in one agricultural village. The following results were obtained. 1. In view of the geographical and climatic conditions, the NANAKAI Village selected for survey had the characteristics of a rural district. The financial situation of the village is poor. Health and hygienic expenses occupy only about 3% of the total budget. The agricultural industry consists mainly of forestry and farm work with little progress in mechanization. In the farm work animal power is almost utilized. The farm is utilized to a very high degree and the amount of agricultural labor is hard in view of the rural life. 2. The progressive decrease in populaticn of this village has been pronounced, causing the low density phenomenon of population, because of a low natural increase in the population and a high rural exodus. The aged population is thus increasing. The decrease in live birth rate, the increase in death rate and infant mortality rate represent one of the typical characteristics of a remote mountain village. 3. The morbidity in this agricultural village, based on the detailed analysis of the national health insurance receipt for medical treatment was as follows. i) In order to ascertain the population in agricultural labor, the possibility of an approach through analysis of subscriptions to national health insurance was demonstrated. ii) The rate of medical consultation was the highest in April, with a peak utilization in August. The rate decreased in the farmer's busy season. iii) The rate of medical consultation in each disease was high for respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and neuralgia. iv) The rate of medical consultation under 4 years was the highest of all age structure. v) The rate of medical consultation by income structure was lower in the low income group. vi) The rate of medical consultation by medical institutions in each area was somewhat higher in medical institutions outside the village than in those within the village.
Demonstration of bacteria of the coliform group from food and drink indicates the possibility of fecal contamination by pathogenic organism. Despite many reports available on contamination by coliform bacteria, demonstration of bacteria of coliform group does not definitely prove fresh fecal on human contamination, since no agreement is generally seen between the pattern of bacterial flora in feaces and that in the test materials in many reports. Therefore since E. coli is considered as occupying the top position of enterobacterial fiora it may be used as the bacterial indicator of contamination. We have studied the development of fecal contamination in vivo in a group of mice after excretion in terms of experimental epidemiology. One group of 5-10 mice were maintained in a single cage to follow the changes in their bacterial flora. Through comparison with the isolated organism, a mutual exchange of bacterial flora was demonstrated among the various mice, after contact for 3-6 days. Such exchange readily occurred with some bacteria but not in others. In order to clarify the mechanism of development of such contamination, Streptomycin (SM) was administered to mice to induce changes in the prevalence of resistant E. coli. When this animal was added to the group, transfer to only one mouse was noted during a course of 13 days. This was considered to indicate the importance of the environmental factors including the enterobacterial flora for the development of transfer. To the group of mice in which SM was administered to decrease the normal enterobacterial flora, one mouse with a fixed presence of 0-6 strain E. coli (resistant to SM, TC and CP) was added. Transfer of the bacteria was noted slowly from the third day on. During the 30 day period, the transfer occurred to most of the mice, assuming the type of so-called chain intection followed by a subsequent disappearance. In the present study, attempts were made to clarify the process of re-uptake of the excreted E. coli into the animal, or the mode of contamination among individual animals through an experimental epidemiologic approach, thereby establishing the position of E. coli as a possible index of fecal contamination.
From July 28 to 30, 1970 and from August 11 to 13, 1970, we made investigations on the hygienic condition of the 120 persons under 69 years and over 70 years of age living in Tuka, Hazehara, Kadonyu and Tonyu villages of Tokuyama Section, Ibigun, Gifu Prefecture The following are the conclusions which we have arrived at. 1) Many of the villagers are suffering from anaemia conjunctivae, erosion of mouth corner, unbalanced-reflex of knee-jerk, grasping pain of calf-muscle and goiter, which are a. series of diseases or syndrome owing to unbalanced diet. 2) Many of then also are suffering from remarkable aging phenomena, such as wrinkles of skin, pigmentary flecks of skin and lengthwise lines of nail. 3) As to albuminuria, 12.5% of young, mature and elderly people and 33.3% of aged people are positive. As to glycosuria, one woman and one man are sufferers from it. 4) Among the diseases, diagnostically most prevalent, are hypertension, diseases of the digestive tract, neuralgia, cardiac diseases, migraine and skin diseases, in order of incidence . 5) Carnaculin, which was offered by the Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Ltd., was administered to the hypertensive patients, 3-6 tablets in a day to be taken three times, and 66.7% of the patients have improved.