Since the use of antibiotics to prevent the frequent occurrence of infection by the dysentery bacilli has become widespread, fluctuations of intestinal flora have become a problem. On the other hand, studies on the SS medium used for the culture and isolation of the dysentery bacilli have revealed the mechanism of action of bile acid, the main component of this medium. Thus progress was achieved in the knowledge on the equilibrium of intestinal flora. After F. Kauffmann successfully classified Escherichia coli (E. coli) serologically, detailed studies have been conducted on the movement of E. coli in the intestinal tract. These studies not only solved clinical problems, but also provided the theoretical and experimental elucidation of contamination by the feces. Furthermore, advance was made in defining the physiological and pathological concepts on the bacterial flora surrounding the organism. The author has examined the fluctuation of the intestinal flora based on the concept of health. In other words, the fluctuations of the intcstinal flora as influenced by environmental factors were studied. Climatic factors were considered in the present study. In order to avoid an alteration of the intestinal flora by the action of an invading bacillus, October and November were selected for study. Feces obtained on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday of every week were studied as to the intestinal flora, and the findings were correlated with the climatic conditions of the previous day. Five young male subjects were studied. Fluctuations of the inteseinal flora were judged on the basis of the rate of appearance of E. coli among bacilli of the coli-form group in the feces, the ratio between the E. coli group and enterococcus, and changes in marker E. coli. The intestinal flora was then classified into group A : healthy intestinal flora; group B : fluctuating intestinal flora; and group C : diarrheal intestinal flora. The relationship between these groups and the highest and lowest temperature of the day, daily difference in temperature, humidity, and difference from the temperature of the preceding day was studied. 1. As the maximal temperature of the day becomes lower, the intestinal flora shows more stability. 2. When the lowest temperature of the day is 7-9°C, the intestinal flora is most stable . 3. When the daily difference in temperature is 7-13°C, the most stable intestinal flora is obtained. 4. Fluctuations appeared more pronounced on days with high humidity lasting for many hours. 5. Intestinal flora was unstable when the maximal or minimal temperature of the day dropped by more than 5°C. These observations would suggest that the intestinal flora normally fluctuates, if not pathologically, in response to changes in the outside climate.
A survey was carried out on an offensive odor at the source as well as on other environmental odors from facilities where fish refuse, animal bone and feather treatment were being carried out among fertilizer plant or fodder plant which act as a source of an offensive odor pollution. The following results were obtained. The method of measurement consists of ASTM type injection syringe method and method of odorometry of Kinoshita type by Odor Research Institute as an organoleptic analysis. A gas chromatography and a Kitagawa type detecting tube methods were carried out as an instrument analysis. The degree of an offensive odor at the drier outlet for treatment of fish refuse was 140-300 by the method of odorometry of Kinoshita type by Odor Research Institute . It was 3-6 X 104 by the injection syringe method. The degree of odor by the injection syringe method at the outlet of the water-flushing deodorization tower was 4 X 104. At the drier outlet for treatment of feathers it was 200-1, 000 by the method of odorometry of Kinoshita type by Odor Research Institute. By the injection syringe method it was 8, 000-100 X 104. The odor at the outlet of the water-flushing deodorization tower was mixed, consisting of feather treatment and fish bowel bone treatment odors. It was found to be 250 by the method of odorometry of Kinoshita type by Odor Research Institute, and 12 X 104 by the injection syringe method. The autoclave exhaust air was 5 X 104. At the drier outlet for animal bone treatment it was 200 by the method of odorometry of Kinoshita type by Odor Research Institute, 6 X 104 by the injection syringe method. Feeding in larger amounts of material than usual resulted in a high odor degree. Heat-treated animal bone and autoclave exhaust emission odors were 6 X 104, 40 X 104. Analysis of exhaust emissions from each treatment process by gas chromatography revealed the presence of acrolein. It was 36-93 ppm at the drier outlet for fish refuse treatment, 70-352 ppm for feather treatment, and 41 ppm for animal bone treatment. The degree of odor in and around the facilities was 12-50 within a range of 200m and below 10 in the 300-600m range.
As the average life span is extended through the progress of medicine and the population of the aged is increasing, inconveniences in daily living in the aged due to the decrease in the body strength and increase in geriatic diseases is more pronounced than ever. Countermeasures for its prevention are acutely needed. In the present study, the effects of exercise in the aged were examined in two nursing homes. Thirty-four aged subjects in a nursing home at Tachikawa, Tokyo, were exercised for 5 years from April 1965. Twelve aged subjects in a nursing home at Odate, Akita, were exercised for 3 years from April 1967. Subjective symptoms, tests for joint mobility, and clinical findings were studied. The following results were obtained : 1. Exercise made daily activity easier snbjectively at each of the two homes. Results of yearly cxaminations revealed improvement of daily activity despite aging. 2. In both homes, the exercise group had better joint motility than the control group. The effect appeared soon after the beginning of exercise and did not fall during 3 years of observation period. 3. Continuous observation on clinical findings, especially blood pressure, showed that exercise in the aged exerted a favorable influence on the circulatory system.
Forty women, ascounting for about 50% of the total number of adult women living on Takarajima, were interviewed in August 1970 for their histories of marriage, pregnancy and delivery. The fertility, shown as the completed number of children from the women after reproductive age, and the number of ever-born children from the women in the reproductive age, was constantly lower than that observed in the women on Kuchinoshima. As a cause of this low fertility, the high incidence of sterile women and of abortion, natural and artificial, was pinpointed. The women of elder ages were in the low level of fecundity, and those of younger ages accepted the artificial abortion in the early stage than on Kuchinoshima.