Response of the intestinal bacterial flora to an operative insult in the field of orthopedic surgery without a direct stimulation of the intestinal tract was studied. The first problem is whether or not an operative insult in orthopedic surgery causes a fluctuation of the intestinal bacterial flora, and if so, to what extent ; and, the second one is whether or not such an event results in the formation of a new bacterial flora and whether such a change is transient and recovers to the former state or is permanent. Thirty patients, without diseases of the digestive tract, with stable stool properties, and indications for operation in orthorpedic surgery, were studied. The intestinal bacterial flora was studied by the following 4 methods1. Ratio between the E. coli group and the Enterococcus group.2. Changes of the E. coli group based on type classification by the Imvic system.3. Changes of the E. coli group based on properties of the colonies on EMB plate cultures for separation.4. The attitude of sensitivity of E, coli against the drug used. These results are summarized as follows.1. By each of the 4 methods used, the bacterial flora in the stool changes postoperatively from the preoperative state. In all cases, however, a return to normal was seen within 3 weeks.2. No difference was observed among patients subjected to general anesthesia, lumbar anes thesia and local anesthesia.3. Differences due to diseases could not be studied due to the insufficient number of cases in the present study.4. In some cases, the ratio between the E. coli group and the Enterococcus group appeared to be unchanged, but a detailed examination revealed that this was due to the drug used.
“ MALTHUS on POPULATION” i. e. “AN ESSAY on the PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION or, A VIEW OF ITS PAST AND PRESENT EFFECTS on HUMAN HAPPINESS; WITH AN INQUIRY INTO OUR PROSPECTS RESPECTING THE FUTURE REMOVAL OR MITIGATION OF THE EVILS WHICH IT OCCASIONS. SIXTH EDITION. IN TWO VOLUMES. LONDON, JAN. 2nd, 1826” written by T.R. Malthus is well known by students of economics, demography, etc. in our cocntry, but little attention has been paid to it by those in the field of public health and hygiene. Therefore, I have focused my attention on the descriptions quoted by Malthus and his opinions about the relationship between dietary life and health. This essay presents my preliminary findings, which I hope will call forth the criticism of the readers.I. Only the way of Bacteriological examinations of food and drink are no longer adequate to guarantee the absense of harmful factors.II. Methods of protection from the ill effects of food and drink must be based on Hygienical studies of the over all relation of food and drink to climate, manners and customs, residence and social circumstances. In connection with the harmful effects of food and drink in Japan today, many instructive points can be found “MALTHUS ON POPULA TION”. It seems that there is necessary for investigating “MALTHUS on POPULATION” from a view-point of preventing us from the ill effects of eating and drinking.