A study was performed to investigate the actual condition of carbon monoxide content in expired air and its relations to life-environmental and physical factors from the viewpoint of health of mother and baby, in a series of 277 pregnant women examined between October and December 1971 at the Metropolitan Koishikawa, Mitaka and Hino Health Centers in Tokyo, with the results summarized as follows : 1) Subjects residing in the midtown area were noted to show average CO concentrations in the expired air slightly higher than those previously reported. There were as many as 72 women (26.0 %) with CO concentrations over 10 ppm, amang the subjects from the midtown area. 2) The concentration of CO in expired air was observed to correlate with the CO level in the immediate life-environment of the individual and hence to change even with a slight degree of alteration in environmental CO concentration. The data also indicate that influence of the CO level in air of the area at latge where the individual lives as well cannot be disregarded. 3) Pregnant women with a history of abnormal gestation and/or abnormal delivery were more frequent in the areas with those exhibiting higher CO concentration in expired air, compared to regions with women showing lower CO levels.
Our previous report described a study of the actual condition of carbon monoxide level in expired air of pregnant women and its relations with life-environmental and physical factors. The present communication deals with an ensuing investigation aimed at clarification of the interrelationship between the relatively low CO concentration in life-environment and the gestation, parturition and neonatal growth, in a series of women and their offspring. The study involved 165 women who were examined during 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 months post parturition at the Metropolitan Koishikawa, Mitaka and Hino Health Centers in Tokyo over the period from January to September 1972, with the results summarized as follows: 1) The incidence of substandard birth weight, i. e. less than M-1/2 ó determined according to weeks of gestation, was found to differ significantly among the three regions. Namely, substandard birth weights were highest in incidence in the group within the jurisdiction of Koishikawa Health Center showing the highest average CO concentration in expired air of the pregnant, followed, in order, by the group within the jurisdiction of Mitaka Health Center and that within the Hino Health Center area. Children with substandard birth weights were more frequent from mothers with higher CO levels in expired air, as compared to children with standard or greater birth weights. 2) Physical examinations conducted on babies 3 to 4 months after birth disclosed a tendency for the child's body weight to be lower in inverse correlation to the mother's CO level in expired air. The examination also revealed a higher incidence of babies with abnormalities in the Koishikawa Health Center area with the highest environmental CO concentration, compared with the two other jurisdictions. 3) Mothers with greater CO concentrations in expired air tended to show higher hemoglobin levels at 3 to 4 months post parturition.
In order to examine the effect of chemicals on fetal growth and development, a series of experiments was projected as follows. First, distribution of chemicals among Maternal-Placento-Fetal Units was determined. Then, whether there exist any relation between fetal body burden of chemicals and fetal growth and development or not, was examined.1. Arsenic in fetal tissues could be detected long enogh after oral administration of NaAs-PO2, to effect later fetal stage directly. The more the dose of NaAsO2, increased, the lower weights of fetal bodies and the fewer number of ossification bodies of caudal vertebrae, which express an aspect of Intra Uterine Growth Retardation, were exhibited .2. Concentraion of lithium in fetal tissues rised quickly after the administration of lithium solution (400mg/kg of LiCI) orally and decreased exponentially soon after . Only in the case of group administered with 40 mEq/l LiCI solution ad libitum for ten days, Intra Uterine Growth Retardation could be observed.3. In spite of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg (as Cd) administration of CdCl2 subcutaneously for 11 days once a day, concentration of Cd in tissues of fetuses was shown trace and negligible . But the group dosed with 0.5 mg/kg of Cd showed significant Intra Uterine Growth Retardation without fetal body burden of Cd. Intra Uterine Growth Retardation was observed commonly among several groups as an effect of chemicals throughout the results of experiments done with different chemicals. It can be said that Intra Uterine Growth Retardation can be used as an indicator for the assessment of the effects of chemicals. Of course, Intra Uterine Growth Retardation without fetal body burden of chemicals must be discussed in distinction from that with fetal body burden.
With 2, 111 adult men and 2, 789 women (aged 30-79 years) inhabiting Gunma Prefecture, FVC and FEV1.0 were measured with the vitalor, and PFR with the Wright's peak flow meter, and prediction formulas for estimating the normal values were presented from the measured values. The prediction formulas obtained by the multiple regression equations between vitalor values (or PFR) on one hand and age and height on the other, as classified by sex. The followings are the main findings : 1) Formulas for estimating FVC (for subjects aged 30-79) For males : Y = 68.6 × Ht -17.9 × age - 6777.5 For females : Y = 18.0 × Ht - 20.6 × age - 656.9 Y:estimated FVC (ml), Ht : height in cm 2) Formulas for estimating FEV1.0 (for subjects aged 30-79) For males : Y = 52.6 × Ht - 20.1 × age - 4728.6 For females : = 66.1 × Ht - 6.0 × age - 7604.6 Y : estimated FEV1.0 (ml) 3) Formulas for estimating PFR (for subjects aged 40-79) For males : Y = 7.4 × Ht - 3.6 × age - 503.6 For females : Y = 4.1 × Ht - 2.6 × age - 125.5 Y : estimated PFR (ι/min.) 4) The values estimated by these formulas were used examples for Japanese inlanders to be compared with those of residents Yokohama city (reported by Oda 1973), which were, the only available data of coastal inhabitants at present. It was found as the result, that FVC decline with age showed a similar pattern in n both examples, but that the authors' estimated PVC was about 300 ml higher that for the coastal inhabitants.
Relations between population changes and health indicators were analyzed from 1920 to 1970 on every census. In this paper, population changes were shown by two indices; percentage of workers engaged in primary industries and ratio of aged population 65 and overr to adults aged 15-64 . Though each prefecture has been in its own course of population change, there has been clearly recognized a tendency toward uniform population change after World War II. Among seven health indicators discussed here, crude death rate, mean expectation of life and proportional mortality indicator (P . M. I.) which have been assumed to be comprehensive health indicators have a state relationship to population changes after World War II. This indicates that age structure of population may definitely regulate the pattern of death rates but f ut further considerations are necessary about factors affecting changes of patteren of death rates from Meiji era with special reference to prefectural differences of industrialization.