This is a longitudinal study of Physical development of low birth weight infants who were born in the jurisdiction of Nihommatsu Health Center, Fukushima Prefecture during 1965-1967. A total of 174 children were measured by weight and height. For the first year, the weights of these infants were follow up month by month frombirth. From one year after birth, heights and weights of the subjects were measured once every half year till the fifth year. For the sake of contrast, a control group of mature infants who were born almost at the same time was selected. Moreover, the socio-economic backgrounds of these groups were matched. In accordance with these height and weight values, a Kaup-index and a Rohrer index were caluculated. 1) The average weight of the infant in this study group were inferior to the control group within the first year from birth. 2) The percentage rate of average weight increase for the infants by month in this study group were remarkably superior to the control group. In both sexes, the increasing rate was largest in the lightest groups during the first year from birth. 3) The standard deviation and coefficient of variation with regard to weight and to the weight increase rate were larger than the control group. 4) At fifth year, the weight and height of low birth weight infants were approching those of the control group. Especially, the height of 2.0-2.lkg group and 2.1-2.2kg group among the females was superior to the control group. 5) From one to five years old the increasing rate of weight and height of low birthweight infants was larger than the control group in both sexes. 6) Kaup-index in the low birth weight group was lower than the control group in both sexes regardless of the weight subgroup. 7) Rohrer index of the low birth weight infant group was superior to that of mature group at 1.5 years in the both sexes. It suggested the importance of health education during the first year from birth.
Measurements and comparisons were carried out on the stature, physical strength and fitness of 2, 360 boys and girls in total, aged 10 to 14, the fifth and sixth grades of elementary, and the first, second and third grades of lower secondary schools, among five different districts of a city, a farm, a fishing and two mountain villages in Akita and Iwate Prefectures of north-eastern Japan mainland. And the results were discussed from the ecological and social aspects with reference to differences among the five districts. 1) Standing and sitting heights and body weight showed the largest values in the city pupils. (Table 3 and 4 ) 2) Among the items of development of breadth, chest girth were superior in the mountain villages. The thoracal breadth and thickness were superior for fishing village and city pupils, respectively. Thoracal index (thickness vs. breadth) was supreme in the city for both male and female. (Table 3 and 4 ) 3) Skinfold was the thickest for both male and female in the city, and its lowest value was seen in the fishing village. (Table 3 and 4 ) 4) Larger Rohrer's index values were seen in both the mountain villages of Akita and Iwate. (Table 3 and 4 ) 5) Muscle strength as indicated by grip, arm, and back strengths showed higher values in the city and the farm village pupils. (Table 6 and 7 ) 6) Physical fitness measured by fundamental body movements of 50-meters running, broad jump, soft ball throwing and chinning were seen higher ability for the farm village pupils in general. At the city and fishing village pupils markedly lower values were observed at chinning. (Table 9 and 10) 7) School lunch supplied in these schools were almost the same condition except the mountain village of Iwate, where no lunch was supplied other than milk. (Table 12) 8) Surveys of nutrient intake of households carried out in these five districts showed that the differences of per capita per day intake was seen in the items of animal protein, ratio of animal and vegitable proteins, and of calcium. Animal and vegetable protein rations of the city and the fishing village, of the farm and the Akita mountain villages, and of the Iwate mountain village were 45, 40 and 27%, respectively. Calcium intakes of the city, of the fishing and the farm villages, and of the two mountain villages were about 600, 500 and 400mg, respectively. These differences shown in the survey should influenced to the development and physical fitness of the pupils in this stage of the life. (Table 13) 9) Facilities of exercise in the schools, such as the dimensions of playground and of gymnasium were the poorest in the city, and most superior in the farm villge. These differences also should be influenced to the fundamental physical fitness of the pupils in each districts. (Table 14) 10) From these results, the present author concluded that there seems still fairely marked differences in the levels of the development and the physical fitness of the pupils among these districts, and the differences of the nutritional and social environmental status surrounding them must be the main factor influenced on them.
The author has investigated what proportion of the reported cases of foetal death and of neonatal death did not coincide with the facts, and has conducted the following research. The subject was foetal deaths and neonatal deaths reported from 1960 to 1964 at Hiketa town (population was about 12, 000), Kagawa Prefecture. The methods consisted of two kinds of surveys; a written one for medical persons including midwives who were at deliveries or who certified the foetal deaths on paper, and the other conducted by interview was for mothers who delivered the reported dead foetus or babies of neonatal deaths. The results were as follows:1. Nine live births were included among 24 reported foetal deaths (37.5%).2. One foetal death was included among 28 reported infant deaths.3. The real values calculated from the adjusted number shown below as attached percentages, are different from the reported indicies as follows: infant death rate +21.1% neonatal death rate +30.8% neonatal death rate within a week after birth +37.1% total foetal death rate -15.9% natural foetal death rate -25.0% late foetal death ratio -35.8%4. The reasons why some neonatal deaths were reported as foetal deaths, are as follows. 1) Mothers and their families wanted to keep their census registration as simple as possible. 2) They also didn't want duplicated reporting in case of infant deaths. 3) They didn't have clear knowledge to distinguish between foetal and infant death. 4) Medical persons who attended the deliveries accepted the wants of mothers concerned.5. The perinatal death rate was recognized to be a reliable health index.