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42 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 宮坂 忠夫, 川田 智恵子
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 59-62
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Changing health behavior is most important among the various objectives of health education practices. In this connection, the "Health Belief Model" which was developed due to the findings of a series of studies on health education in the past two decades in the U.S. is presented by the authors from a historical point of view that (1) the role of health belief in changing health behavior was first and dramatically shown by Hochbaum, (2) his findings were supported by two experiments by Kegeles, and Haef ner and Kirscht, and (3) the Model was developed by Becker et al. based upon these foregoing findings. A few comments on the Model are mentioned by the authors. (1) Because the objects of most studies on health beliefs were on rather simple health behavior such as participating in a screening program and getting vaccinated against communicablediseases, the authors are interested in how the Model could be applied to more complicated and habitual health behavior such as in the case of the diabetic patient who is to take everyday the diet and exercise prescribed by his physician. (2) One more variable would be added to the Model in order to explain motives (providing energy) for health behaviors.
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  • 伊藤 隆, 渡辺 正友, 山本 正治, 渡辺 厳一
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 63-65
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The sex ratio at an early embryonic stage was investigated in 1100 cases of induced abortions terminated within 12 weeks of gestation. By means of the cytogenetic analysis of the chorionic villi, the sex ratio was determined as 107.5 (570 males/530 females), which did not seem to be different greatly from the ratio at birth. Since a slight excess of male conceptuses was already evident at this stage, it was suggested that main contributing factors affecting the male dominant sex ratio might be present at an earlier embryonic stage, namely the preimplantation, rather than later stages towards birth.
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  • 山本 正治, 足立 公子
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 66-71
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     われわれはさきに,ヒト妊娠初期の性比は出生時性比と著しく差を認めないことを,明らかにした.このことは,性比決定の主要因が妊娠ごく早期,とくに着床前にあることを示唆している.しかし, ヒトでは,着床前受精卵の分析が難しい為, 動物を用いてこの間の事情解明を試みた. 生後3~4ヵ月のマウス277匹の妊娠3.5,10。5の受精卵,胎仔の染色体分析および18.5日胎仔の肛門生殖結節間距離の測定によって性判定を行った.妊娠3.5,10.5,18。5日の性比はそれぞれ,98.3(179♂/182♀),109.5(138/126).111.7(686/614)であった.したがって,第1次性比は著しく高いとは思われない.また,妊娠中期以降は性比増加傾向を認めた.ここで,性の相違による淘汰を調べるため,受精卵の分割数,胎仔の頭臀長,体重など測定したが,性差を認めなかった.しかし,着床時点の前後で,有意の胎仔数減少を認めたので,この間に胎仔淘汰に性差が存在する可能性がある.
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  • 清水 勝嘉
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 72-86
    公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this papes, administrative orpanization for public health, tuberculosis control and prevention of venereal disease, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were discribed. 1. In those days, public health administration had been centrlized to the Health Bureau and Social Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and they gave their instructions to the Public Health Section of the Prefectural Police Department. Countermeasures for the chronic infectious diseases were the most imoprtant problems at that time. 2. The mortality from tuberculosis in Japan was two or three times higher than that of Western countris, and there were poor and insufficient preventive facilites in all over the country. It was epock making in 1932 that the Health Guidance Clinic were established in every prefectures in order to prevent against tuberculosis by the subsides offered from NHK (Nihon Hoso Kyokai), but not by the national budget. 3. Licenced and unlicened prostitute, geisha, waitress and barmaid had been the major contagion source of venreal disease. Legal inspection system for the syphilis was forcibly applied only to the licenced prostitutes, but the others took the medical check only when they were arrested. Since 1928, when the original Venereal Disease Prevention Law enforced, all prostitures, streetwalkers, geishas, barmaids and waitresses have forcibly taken medical check for the venereal disease.
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  • 清水 勝嘉
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 87-97
    公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, trachoma and blindness, leprosy, and parasitosis, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described. 1. Morbidity rate of trachoma in the beginning of Showa declined as compared with that in the Meiji and Taisho Era. There may be main factors of the declination of morbidity rate that emphasis was laid on the trachoma in physical examination for school children and conscriptee, that preventive measure against trachoma required small expense and that the mass examination for trachoma was simple and easy. Blindness was closely related with trachoma. 2. The goverment organization of the National Leprosarium was proclaimed in 1927 and Leprosy Prevention Law was widely revised in 1931. Since then prevention of leprosy have been made it a principle to isolate the patients in the National Leprosarium. 3. It appeared obvious in the beginning of the Showa Era that higher morbidity rate of parasitosis was 40%-60% in urban and 70%-80% in rural area. Parasitosis Prevention Law was proclaimed in 1931. However, the morbidity rate showed no decreasing tendency. Major countermeasures against parasitosis in those days were the stool examination for paraites, administration of anthelminthic, and popularization of new type of lavatory improved by the Ministry of Home Affaires.
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  • 柳沢 文徳, 前田 博, 飯田 英臣, 松岡 洋右, 前田 幹雄, 清水 良泰
    42 巻 (1976) 2 号 p. 98-104
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    F. Yanagisawa and Y. Shimizu showed that there is a close inverse correlation with a correlation coefficient of -0.899 (1965) between the crude death rate and the birth rate in the economic zones of Japan set forth by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. We have recently made a study of how the correlation alters in the administrative zones, is, prefectures of Japan. The correlation coeffieients between the crude death rate and the birth rate during the period of from 1892 till 1975 showed normal correlations up to and including 1950, but changed into negative correlations from about 1959 on. It is that the correlation coefficients between the crude death rate and the birth rate in Japan changed into an negative correlation at about the time when Japanese economy got into the high growth age. Especially, the correlatin coefficients between the two parameters from 1964 on showed such a high negative correlation as -0.8. Detailed analysis of the available data is necessry for interpreting the sgnificance of this phenomenon, but at present stage of study, the difference in the agewise stratified population structure between the prefectures may be considered responsible for it. If the correlation not between the crude death rate and the birth rate but between the standardized death rate and the birth rate in 1970 is estimated, the coefficient still indicates an negative correlation, but the correlation coefficient is as low as -0.425. In ther words, it is demonstrated that the agewise stratified structure of population plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, if it is considered that the district where there is a large dependent population is agricultural prefectures, it may be considered that the neonatal death, rate in the district is high. The problem relating to the fact that chronological alterations in the correlation coefficient between the crude death rate and the birth rate have in recent years shown negative correlations, rebuire the analysis of factors responsible for this phenomenon by means of analyzing alterations the agewise stratified population structures in the prefectures, the difference in health problems between the prefectures and the status of widespread acceptance of conception control.
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