Cerebrovascular disease is the most predominant cause of deaths in Japan. Of cerebrovascular diseases cerebral infarction has steadily increased after World War II, while it was a minor cause of deaths compared to cerebral hemorrhage, until about 1950. Crossing of the two curves of these death rates, which was seen in England and Wales in about 1950, is just happening in 1974/75. Also the composition of the Japanese habitual diet is changing fairly rapidly since the war. Increase in consumption of meat, milk and eggs is most remarkable, while consumption of rice is rather decreasing slowly. 1. Rice is a delicious staple food, and many people tend to overeat it, especially in rice producing area. Notwithstanding Kempner's rice diet therapy for hypertensives, in Japan correlation coefficients of Rohrer's indices of young men with rice production and with age-adjusted death rate for cerebrovascular disease is positively significant by 46 prefectures. 2. Salty food suits rice diet. Main sources of salt intake are bean paste 'miso', soy sauce and salted pickles. Prefectural distribution of age-adjusted death rate for cerebrovascular disease positively correlates with that of purchased quantities of salt, miso-paste and soy sauce per person of consumer's household. 3. Geographic distribution of the death rate for cerebrovascular disease negatively correlates with purchased quantities of raw meat, cow's milk and eggs. 4. Geographic distribution of the death rate for cerebrovascular disease positively correlates with purchased quantity of sake, and negatively with that of beer.
We already showed the Cohort Pheomenon on the death rate for the heart diseases in Japan recently; Here, we show the same phenomena on the death rate for ischemic heart disease in Japan, too, The death rate for ischemic heart disease in Japan was originally low about 50 years ago. In 1910, it showed only 0.9 per 100, 000 population, but it shows about 39 in 1975. It grew rather slowly until 1950, but it shows rapid increasing in rate after 1950. The Cohort Phenomena were shown after 1950 in two different phases in both sexes. The first one is that the generations born in 1905-10 and before showed a rapid acceralation of death rate in 1955-60 and the difference of the rate almost equal to ten years aging in those five years. The second one is the phenomon that was shown after 1960 and was a continuous acceralation of the death rates of each generation born in 1906-1.0 and before, namely, the older they grew the more acceralation increased, The Cohort Phenomena are discussed in the relation with urbanization that is shown in Japan in these years, especially with the gravitation of population toward the urban areas of Japan.
The author studied the skinfold thickness considering the relationship between body heights and the skinfold thickness that is growth, in relation to the method of judging obesity in school children, using the samples consisting of 12, 774 school boys and 12, 032 school girls whose body heights and skinfold thickness (dorsal region of the upper arm +inferior region of the scapular bone) were measured ; and the following conclusions were drawn : 1. The skinfold thickness by the age and the sex increases with advancement of age. However, the skinfold thickness of 12-year-old school boys was smaller than that of 11- year-old boys. 2. The frequency distribution of skinfold thickness by the sex and the age gave a curve with of peaked-topped distribution for the boys, and a curve of plat-topped distributton for the girls, presenting marked distortions. Analysis of the normal distribution of samples from which obesity was excluded by the test of goodness of fit showed no normal distribution of the samples. 3. An attempt was made to, judge obesity in terms of percentiles of the skinfold thickness by the sex and the age, and it was disclosed that the 90 percentile value was applicable for such purposes. 4. Analysis of the mean skinfold thickness by 1-cm intervals of body height gave the following results a : Consideration of the correlation diagrams of the mean skinfold thickness by body heights in the samples aged 6-9 and those aged 10-12 gave the following regression equations: Boys : group aged 6-9: y= +0. 212x - 11. 388 group aged 10-12: y= +0. 150x - 3. 970 Girls : group aged 6-9: y= +0. 209x - 8. 286 group aged 10-12: y = +0. 268x - 17. 491 b : The regression equations for the mean skinfold thickness by body heights in all age groups were as follows : Boys : body heights, 107-145 cm : y = + 0. 1328x - 1. 6523 body heights, 107-155 cm : y=+15. 939 + 0. 135x - 0.014x2 Girls : body heights, 107-145 cm : y= +0. 2056x - 7. 8602 body heights, 107-155 cm : y= +18. 649 + 0. 208x - 0. 0022x2 The correlation coefficient by the primary regression line was not smaller than + 0.9. 6. The standard line for the judgement in screening of obesity was given by the following regression equation: Boys : y= + 0. 3388x - 21. 9429 (M+SD) Girls : y=25, 7150 + 0.3103x - 0.0012x2 (M+SD) This method of judging obesity was called Screening I for Judgement of Obesity. 6. From Brozek's equation for body density and fat amount and from Nagamine's equation for body density and subcutaneous fat was obtained the skinfold thickness corresponding to the body fat amount according to the criteria for judgement of obesity : and utilizing the aforementioned stand regression equation for the skinfold thickness by body heights, the standard line for the judgement of obesity was prepared. This was called Screening II for Judgement of Obesity. 7. The adequacy of the aforementioned two methods for judging obesity was studied, using the values of the skinfold thickness of school children in Warabi-city, which the author measured.
The author measured the physical status and skinfold thickness of school children who entered two primary schools in Numazu, Japan, in 1967 and 1968, during the following six years until their graduation. This study was made of the course of growth and development from the point of view of obesity which has in recent years been creating problems, with reference to the data obtained by measuring the builds of the school children by longitudinal section over the six years. The school children comprised 198 boys and 197 girls; and the boys were aged 7.02 and the girls, 7.03 on the average. The results of analysis of the data are presented below. I. General growth status of school children chosen subjects 1) The mean body heights, body weights and chest circumferences by ages and sexes which were measured by the author were mostly consistent with the means for the corresponding ages in 1968-1973 which were published by the Japanese Ministry of Education, but with a six-month lag. 2) The mean skinfold thickness of the upper arm, back and abdominal were commonly in the sequence of upper arm > the abdominal > the back and alterations with aging showed an abrupt increase at the age of 9 in both the boys and girls. II. The author classed the children by the rates of alterations in body weight by body heights into the following four groups; group A by not less than +10% ; group B by 0+9.9% ; group C by -0.1 to -9.9% ; and group D by not less than -10%. The growth statuses by these groups may be summarized as follows; 1) The mean magnitudes of body heights and body weights at the age of six tended to be in the sequence of group A >group B >group C >group D in both boys and gials, while only the body lengths of girls were in the sequence of group D > group C. The mean body heights of groups A and B were tested for singificant difference ;and it was revealed that there was a significant difference in mean body lengths at any of the ages of from six to 11 between the boys of the two groups, but a significant difference only at the age of ten between the girls of the two groups. 2) The mean skinfold thickness of each of the measured regions (upper arm, back and abdominal) of group A was far greater than that of any of the other three groups. 3) The rate of children judged as obese during the six pears was highest in group A, with 75.0% of boys and 60.0% of girls of this group judged so. This finding means the necessity of taking early measures to prevent the school children with a tendency to obesity at the age of six from getting obese. III. Twenty-five boys and 26 girls who were judged as obese during the six years were classed to the obese group, and the growth course of this group is presented below. 1) The mean body heights and body weights of this group at lower ages were smaller than the counterparts of group A by the rates of alterations in body weight by body heights, while those at higher ages tended to be greater than those of group A. 2) Alterations in the mean skinfold thickness of the upper arm, back and abdominal regions were such that the skinhold thickness increased sharply and markedly at ages of 8 to 9. 3) Alterations in annual increase in body length showed that both the boys and girls of obese group tended to be mature earlier than those of group A. 4) The incidence of obesity was high at lower ages of six to nine in both the boys and girls. Out of these children, the status of improvement of obesity at the of 11 was poor in the children judged as obese at the age of s6x. 5) The correlation coefficient between the rates of increases in body weights by body heights and the skinfold thickness (upperm arm+back) was as low as r= +0.47 in the girls at ages of 9 to 11, which appears to indicate the influence of the growth accelerating stage.
This paper discussed regional differences in spontaneous foetal death rates and their factors in Gifu Prefecture. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The regional differences of spontaneous foetal death rates are recognized when the data from mean values of the two years (1973-1974) in Gifu Prefecture were analyzed by each rural and urban. 2. Observed by age groups, the spontaneous foetal death rates are lowest in case of mothers or fathers aged 25-29. By the numbers of foetus, the spontaneous foetal death rates of multiple birth are higher than those of single. The spontaneous foetal death rates in mother with the experience of still birth are high comparing with the mother without the experience of still birth. By birth order, the second showed the lowest rates. By places of delivery, home and other (except hospital, clinic and midwife home) showed higher rates in spontaneous foetal death rates. By occupation of household the other occupations (except agriculture only, agriculture with other works, self employed, employee-white color and employee-blue color) showed the most high rates and the next is agriculture only. The spontaneous foetal death rates in illegitimate birth indicated higher than those of legitimate. 3. The spontaneous foetal death rates by each rural and urban were positively correlated the proportions of illegitimate birth.