Sera collected from 100 cases of two hill tribes (the Meo and the Karen), 57 cases of people living in the highland area around ChiangDao and 255 cases of people living in the plain area around ChiangMai city were tested for transaminases S-GOT, S-GPT) and zinc sulfate test (ZTT). HBs antigen, antibody and HBc antibody were detected for 41 sera of hill tribes (23 of the Meo and 18 of the Karen). The results were as follows; 1) 70.1% of all 412 cases in northern Thailand were somehow unusual on liver functions. 2) Proportion of the abnormal level with liver functions was higher in people living in the highland area including hill tribes than those living at the plain area . 3) Proportion of the abnormal level with liver functions of the Karen people was much higher in all transaminases and ZTT than that of the Meo. 4) Young people under 10 years of age and especially those of the hill tribes showed high percentage of abnomal level with liver functions. 5) Proportions of the abnormal level were 70.2% in S-GOT and 64.4% in ZTT among all cases showed unusual level with liver functions. 6) Among the people with transaminase abnormality, S-GOT abnormalities were about three times as many as S-GPT. 7) Prevalence of HBs antigen, HBs antibody and HBc antibody were 14.6%, 36.6% and 56.1 % respectively among 41 cases of the hill tribes. 8) All of HBs antigen positive cases were in the state of high HBc antibody reservo-irs and seemed to be asymptomatic long term antigen carriers. 9) Prevalance of HB virus was 75.6% in 41 cases of the hill tribes. 10) Subtypes of HBs antigen were detected in 4 of 6 positive cases, that is, adw (1 case) and adr (3 cases).
Shiramine is an isolated mountain village located in Ishikawa prefecture. The study was done to find the relationship of the geographical distribution of marriage on traffic development and other factors. The results were as follows. 1) The rates of marriages between the same villagers about 80% showed little change from 1868 to 1925. After 1926 they decreased slowly, and after 1955 they markedly decreased. 2) The spread of the geographical distribution of marriages took about thirty years after traffic development. And it was almost in parallel with the spread of newspapers and telephones from 1955 to 1965. 3) In Kuwajima district of Shiramine village there is a high rate of marriage between the same villagers, while in Shiramine distrct there is a low rate of marriage between the same villagers. It meant that Shiramine and Kuwajima district people did not marry with each other. But after 1955 when marriages between the same villagers decreased, marriages between the same district residents also decreased rapidly after 1971. The two district people then began to marry with each other after 1971. 4) The geographical distribution of marriage of old traditional well established families expanded earlier than the poor working class.
Changes in birth distribution pattern during a few centuries were investigated in both Japan and the USA, using various forms of records. Regional differences in seasonal birth distribution, and their connection with birth rates and marriage seasons were also studied. The following conclusions were drawn. 1) From the second half of the 19th century to the first half of the 1960's, seasonal distribution of births in Tokyo and Osaka showed a fluctuating pattern with a peak from January to March and a trough between May and August. Most variations during that period were in the amplitude of the basic pattern. 2) Old registration books of parishoners known as 'Ninbetsu-cho' of three towns in Osaka City revealed a peculiar pattern with a sharp peak between November and December, ( October and November of the lunar calender) from 1755 to 1867. 3) Japanese birth distribution became less noticeable in the 1960's and the 1970's with very low peak between July and August similar to that formed in the USA. 4) In USA, there is a secular change of shifts of peaks in different periods. The typical pattern with a peak between Aug. and Sep. can be seen from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century and again after 1930. During certain periods since the 17th century, different patterns are apparent: e. g. a wide peak between May and September until the 1970's, or a pattern with two peaks in spring and autumn from the second half of the century until the 1920's. 5) Regional differences of the birth distribution in Japan gradually decreased and have reached uniformity throughout Japan. (6) As for the relationships between birth seasonality and regional birth rates, regional birth rates fell in summer, becoming lower as one travels south. 7) As for the relationship between birth seasonality and annual birth rate, a distinct difference was seen in the peak season of Jan.-Mar., and the birth rate in the trough season of May-July changed little until World War II when contraception became popular in Japan. 8) Prior to World War II the seasonal distribution of marriages in Japan was typified by peaks in spring. After the Wax it changed to a pattern with peaks in both spring and late autumn. Seasonal differences of marriages increased, in contrast to birth patterns. 9) Comparing the distribution of marriage ceremonies and registrations after World War II in Japan, seasonal variance was larger for ceremonies than registrations. The marriage registration peak shifted ahead one or two months. This suggests that most marriages were registered several months later than ceremonies. In the 1970's, however, this difference was reduced. 10) It seems worthwhile to consider the possibility that certain seasonal biological suppressing factors varying in period and by region may be responsible for the distributional birth pattern.