The date of birth and the date and place of death were transcribed for each individual deceased registrant from the list of personnels expired from the family register (Koseki) on Kuchinoshima in the Tokara Islands in 1971. From this and the residential population in 1955 and thenceafter, the number of birth and death in each defined time-period was reconstructed. Accumulating the number of birth and excluding the number of death, the size of population was sequentially estimated since 1925 to 1970. In this artificial population, sequential natality and mortality rates were calculated and evaluated by comparing with the previously reported values based on the other sources.
For each individual in the family-register on Kuchinoshima in the Tokara Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture and the list of deceased registrants in the family-register, the date of demographic events; birth, death, emigration and immigration, was transcribed in 1973. Population size and vital statistics including migration in the family register were reconstituted from the transcribed information. When compared with the historical population size of inhabitants on the island (PS-I), the population size in the family-register (PS-R) differed differently according to the time-period. PS-I and PS-R were identical in1885.1900, and thenceforth up to 1944, PS-R exceeded PS-I to a small extent in 1900-1930 and to a great extent in 1930-1944. A sharp increase in PS-I happened around 1950?when PS-I exceeded PS-R. In 1960s, PS-I decreased and PS-R stayed rather constant. High birth rates with some fluctuation (30-44 per 1, 000 of population) were observed in 1885.1944, and thenceafter the birth rate turned to decrease with a transient increase in 1950-1954. The highest death rate was observed in 1945-1949 and in the period of 1885-1944 the death rate was in an estimated range of 8-16 per 1, 000 of population. The population of the register exchanged the female to and from the other part of Japan; Kagoshima Pref. in the early time and Kyushu and Honshu in the recent time, but only exported the male.
We have observed the population changes in Yonakuni-Island which is located in the southwestern most of Ryukyu-Islands. The following results are obtained. The process of population change in Yonakuni-Island is classified into several phases. They are an increasing phase before 1926, a stagnant phase from 1926 to 1944, a rapidly increasing phase immediately after the World War II, and a decreasing phase from 1950 till now. The last phase is divided into two substages at 1960. In the first substage the population decrease is mainly caused by emmigrants i.e. social factor and in the second substage it is mainly caused by reduction of natural growth rate. We can also see extreme changes in composition of population in Yonakuni-Island after 1955. They are a reduction of ratio of younger population aged 14 and less to producing population aged 15 - 64, and a rising of ratio aged population 65 and over to producing population.
It has been suggested that several factors such as geographical economical and occupational conditions as well as food distribution system are largely influencing on the structure of food intake. However very few investigators have conducted the survey on the relation between food distribution and regional food intake. This is mainly because the method of food distribution survey has not yet been specified definitely. The authors were having story interest in this relationship, especially in the food distribution system of the small isolated island where the food consumption might be biased by the limitation of food transportaiton. The authors had a chance to do a food distribution and dietary survey at Yonaguni Island. Okinawa in Sentember 1973 and 1974. Three hamlets (Sonai, Kubura and Higawa) were surveyed. The authors checked up all the food items sold at each food shop situated within each hamlets. And we obtained several interesting results as followings. At Kubura hamlet where fishery was the most prevailing occupation, the number of fishery food items were far exceeding than the other 2 hamlets. On the contrary, the food distribution of Higawa was the worst among the 3 hamlets where agriculture was the prevailing industry. There were only 2 food shops located in Higawa and moreover, the households of Higawa could not buy meats because these items were not distributed there. At Sonai where main official facilities were located and the number of food shops were far exceeding than the other 2 hamlets, the number of total food items and animal food items were exceeding than Kubura and Higawa. Thus the location of food shop as well as the difference of the prevailing industries of each hamlet were considered to largely influence on the dietary intake of the hamlets. Milk was not consumed in any households of Yonaguni Island because milk was not distributed within the island nor transported from outside of the island.
The Beliefs about disease which is considered to be underlying the health behavior of each individual was compared between housewives and student nurses. Each individual to be surveyed was requested to name any one or more out of the given 30 sicknesses or wounds as: A) fearful, B) not fearful, but abominable, C) ashamed of, D) being pride of, and E) desirable so as to like to acquire it. The answer was given anonymously, but with age, education and occupation being specified. The findings were as follows: 1) As group A, stomach cancer, leukemia and intracerebral hemorrhage, were give at high percentages. As group B, dental carious, skin diseases, and myopia ranked high. There was difference between housewives and student nurses in the order feared sicknesses and wounds. 2) The diseases and wounds given as examples contained 6 chronic diseases, which are generally classified under so-called adult diseases. None or only one of them were named either as feared group or as abominated group B by 108 housewives, and only by 7 student nurses. They were designated as the adult disease low concerned group. 3) Housewives belonging to this gorup were concentrated among the low-educated (middle school graduates), the healthy ones confident of their own present health, and those having over optimistic health views.