From an ecological point of view, even sanitary environment is considered a partial environment of man. Man's total environment can be understood only through the concept of habitat which is peculiar to ecology. Man's habitat differs from that of other organisms in its great variety and has gone through tremendous changes. The habitat of modern man meets various requirements and satisfies needs. However, the man-made part of man's environment is now even too highly developed and the increase of expedience has become a handicap . Just as the man-made environment of mans origins contributed to his survival and welfare, modern man aspires toward a welfare environment which eliminates the disadvantage that accompany the highest stage of the man-made environment. A welfare environment should protect man's survival from dangers, whether they come from nature or from man himself. In addition to this, it should be a living environment that fulfills cultural aspirations. A welfare environment for individuals and families is essential as a basis for the establishment of a community welfare environment. It should be emphasized that planning of a community welfare environment is inseparable from comprehensive community health care planning.
It is necessary to confirm the normal values of urinary hydroxyproline by age and sex, for the sake of estimating a dose-response relationship between urinary hydroxyproline and various independent variables just like growth, exposure to NO2, collagen diseases and so on. Expression of the hydroxyproline excretion as the hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio has made urinary hydroxyproline excreted in random specimens possible to be a representative of hydroxyproline excreted per 24 hours specimen, thus eliminating the burdensome collection of 24 hours specimens. And the stability of specimen was also studied and it has been confirmed that urinary hydroxyproline is not influenced if it is treated with addition of 0.01% toluene and stored under -20°C. The urinary hydroxyproline excretion from normal Japanese ranging from three years to seventy years of age has been expressed as milligrams hydroxyproline to milligrams creatinine excreted at random specimens. Number of subjects in this was 3, 188 (male-1, 511 and female-1, 677). At all ages the ratio is almost equivalent in both sexes but the ratio in female was relatively higher than the ratio in male during from eight to twelve years of age. The ratio rapidly decreases from three to seven years of age and increases from seven to nine or ten years of age and after that, it decreases to about twenty gradually. According to the results of Allisons' study, the ratio decreases from six months about five years of age and after remaining constant puberty, it decreases again to about age twenty. Such a difference between Allisons' study and our results possibly suggests the characteristic of growth in school-children in Japan. Subsequently, Allison points out that the ratio remains constant through age seventy yeas and in spite of that, our study suggests that even after 20 years of age, the ratio still shows a slight decrease by aging, as a result of mass examination. In conclusion, although it is a fact that the ratio rapidly decreases from 3 years to seven years of age from a micro-view point, there are acontinuous decrease in the ratio from 3 years to 70 years of age by aging, if it is overlooked through a whole human life.
Recently not only health behavior toward oneself but helping behavior toward others have been regarded as socially significant. In the present study, we investigated blood donation as a typical of the helping behavior. Specifically, we examined 1) relation between blood donation (and intention to give blood) and general tendency to help others, and 2) possible other determinants of blood donation. We administered a questionnaire including the following items to female college students majoring physical education (264 freshmen and 336 juniors). 1) Frequency of blood donation (BLD) and reason/motive for it 2) Intention of blood donation in future (INT) 3) General tendency to help others (HPT) 4) Adorno's F-scale (FSC) 5) Experience of being transfused (BLT) 6) Word association to“Blood donation”(WA) 7) Knowledge about blood donation (KNW). The results were: 1) 18% of the freshmen and 36% of the juniors had donated blood at least once (the latter percentage was significantly larger); 87% each of the both groups replied they had intention to donate blood in future. 2) BLD and INT were positively correlated. 3) Those high in HPT showed higher BLD and more often INT than those low in HPT. 4) KNW significantly contributed to BLD, but not to INT. 5) Negative affect toward blood donation revealed in WA was negatively related to INT, but not to BLD. 6) Discriminant analysis for the 3 groups according to BLD with 6 predictor variables led the following function. Y BLD=0.5593HPT+ 0.543KNW+ 0.4775INT+ 0.2267FSC+ 0.0687WA+ 0.0366BLT We conclude that blood donation is an indication of general helping tendency, but is also caused by relevant knowledge and intention.
Temperatures, relative humilities, and water vapour pressures inside and outside of the test mattress were compared with those in case of cotton mattresses while resting in bed. The test mattress had a raft-structure made of 21 hard polyurethan-foam cylinders, 7.8 cm. in diameter, 90 cm, in length. The structure of the raft was covered with 3 sheets of layers, a sheet of soft polyurethan-foam, a sheet of polyethylene air-caps and cotton cloth, forming a sandwich-structure. The results were as follows; 1) When the microclimate inside of bed reached the comfortable and stady state, the values of temperature, relative humidity and vapour pressure in the space between the tatamimat and the mattress were smaller in case of resting in raft-structure mattress than in cotton mattress. 2) In case of resting in raft-structure mattress, moisture evaporation from a human body did not permeat the mattress, but diffused along the back of the body through the concave surface of air-caps. 3) As a result of observation over two years it was confirmed that wet moulds did not grow on the surface of either tatami-mat or the raft-structure mattress in case of resting in raft-structure mattress.
A device for underwater weighing by utilizing a swimming pool was tentatively made, and with it, the weights in water of 111 male students were measured. And from the thus obtained weights in water, the body density was calculated to be compared, for its justification, with those already reported by other workers in the literature. This study aimed at the examination of the body composition of boys in the developing stage. And the points to pay attention in this case were discussed. The principal findings were as follows: 1) The body density obtained by this method from the above mentioned subjects was 1.0724 ± 0.0092 (mean ± standard deviation). This approximately agrees with 1.07, the normal (general) value for the Japanese adolescent males, estimated from the reports in the literature. 2) The residual volume (RV), an important factor determining the body density needs to be measured exactly. The maximal expiratory level which affects RV, is relatively easy to determine in case of the underwater weighing thanks to water pressure. When elementary school children are the subjects of weighing, however, sufficient attention must be paid to avoid danger, because breething needs to be arrested during a time from the attainment of the maximal expiratory level until the end of the weighing. 3) The underwater weighing can be made within 5 seconds after the attainment of the maximal expiratory level of the subject. The body weights in water of the subjects of the present study averaged 3.03±0.578kg (range, 4.25 to 1.60kg.).
On the basis of the body density, described in the first report, the body fat mass was estimated, and its relations with the skinfold thicknesses at and girths around various parts of the body were studied. The subjects were divided into sport group and non-sport group, and the former was further subdivided by the variety of sport. And the results from different groups and subgroups were compared with each other. The principal findings were as follows: 1) The mean weight of fat(Fat-Kg)for the total 111 cases was 8.0±3.07(X±SD). The mean for a single sport subgroup ranged 10.0?}3.28 for the judo subgroup to 6.6±1.88 for the ball game (baseball, football etc.) subgroup. The percentage of body fat mass to body. weight (%Fat) was 12.0±2.90% for the total cases, when classified by group and subgroup, %Fat was the highest 13.6?±4.44% for the non-sport group, and the lowest 10.3±2.82% for the ball game subgroup. 2) Fat-Kg was highly correlated with both skinfold thickness and girth, especially so with the former in general, giving a higher coefficient. In the judo subgroup, however, both the skinfold thickness and the girth were correlated with Fat-Kg nearly with the same coefficient. 3) when the partial correlation of Fat-Kg to skinfold thickness (total of those at triceps, subcapsular part, and abdomen on midaxillary line) was compared with that to girth (total of those of upper arm, chest and abdomen), with the thickness or the girth fixed, the coefficient was higher for the latter partial correlation than for the former in the judo subgroup. This was characteristic of this subgroup as compared with the others. 4) In the non-sport group, any significant correlation was not observed between the skinfold thickness at the triceps and Fat-Kg. In this respect, the non-sport group was distinguished from the sport group inclusive of the judo subgroup.