民族衛生
検索
OR
閲覧
検索
46 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の4件中1~4を表示しています
    • |<
    • <
    • 1
    • >
    • >|
  • 江崎 廣次
    46 巻 (1980) 5 号 p. 214
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 豊川 裕之, 三宅 由子, 丸井 英二
    46 巻 (1980) 5 号 p. 215-225
    公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     マレーシアにおける疾病,とくに肝疾患の食要因を探るための予備調査として,食品(群)別の摂食頻度を質問票一面接聞き取り法で調査した.調査対象は,マレーシア,セランゴール州セキンチャン地区の水田地帯に住むマレー人,シナ人,インド人の各集落から夫々約50世帯を無作為抽出した.調査時期は1974年11月の1週間である.居住者は人種別に集落を形成しており,調査班は日本人調査員2名(著者の中の1人と"かび"研究者),看護婦(対象人種の言語ができる者),保健所職員,案内人からなる5名編成である. 調査結果の概要は以下の通りである. 1)3集落に共通して高頻度摂取食品は,米,魚介類,油脂類,野菜類である.ただし,魚介類は生鮮魚が塩干魚より上廻っており,油脂類についてはシナ人が落花生油を用い,マレー人とインド人がココヤシ油を用いる. 2)香辛料としては,マレー人とシナ人はにんにく,生とうがらしを常用し,インド人はカレー粉を常用するという明瞭な相違が認められる. 3)きわだった特色であり,かつ研究上好都合と思われることは,対象地区の住民は過去10年間に食生活の変化がなく,かつ,今後も引き続いて変化が起こりそうにない.ここでいう研究とは食生活と疾病の発生状況の関連を明らかにすることを目的とするものである. 4)各人種は住居地が夫々(回教,ヒンズー教,佛教),教育,通婚,社会的交際なども互に独立している.したがって,同一の自然環境の中で,異る文化を形成している.このような状況は疾病の文化的要因を食習慣を通して検討することにとって最適のものである. 5)本調査で採用した簡単な質問票による摂食頻度調査は食生活の骨格を把握することに役立つものである.とくに,言語,風俗,習慣,宗教および自然環境が異る地域における食生活調査として有用である. 食物が汚染するかび毒と疾病(とくに肝硬変,肝がん)との関連を調べるためだけではなく,広く文化と疾病の関連を研究する対象として恰好の調査対象であることを付言する.
    抄録全体を表示
  • 上田 礼子, 花岡 真由紀, 横沢 せい子
    46 巻 (1980) 5 号 p. 226-236
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cross-cultural or geographical differences in child development have been reported (Brazelton et al. 1969, Super 1976), and the development of pre-school children of different social and ethnic groups has been discussed in relation to developmental screening (Frankenburg et al. 1975, Ueda 1977). In Japan, where the population is highly homogeneous in racial background, racioethnic factors are considered to be less important in child development than geographical factors. Our previous studies (Ueda 1976, 1978) revealed that there were differences in child development and patterns of child rearing between Tokyo and Okinawa, the southernmost part of Japan. Ecological and socio-cultural factors which may contribute to these differences were discussed, as were the implications of the results for developmental screening. The purpose of the present study is to complete this line of studies by collecting data on child development in a northern part of Japan and comparing the results with those in Tokyo and Okinawa. By doing so, the author intended to determine the applicability of developmental screening tests on populations in different geographical areas, and to explore the impacts of the environment upon human development. Iwate, the northern part of Japan was chosen and compared with Tokyo, a large metropolitan area in the central part of Japan and Okinawa. The Denver Developmental Screening Test, partly modified as in the previous study in Tokyo (Ueda, 1978) was used to assess the development of children aged between 16 days and 6 years. The sample consisted of 564 normal Iwate children and the 1171 normal Tokyo children who were the sample for the standardization of the DDST in Tokyo and 775 normal Okinawa children. All items of the DDST were compared both statistically acid clinically for the three samples. Differences were found on some items among two and/or three samples and were classified into four groups; 1) items related to urbanization, 2) items related to climate, 3) items related to culture, and 4) items related to body balance. Unless these differences are kept in mind when administering developmental screening test, there will be risks of false negative as well as false positive. But if the DDST is administered with caution and some modifications are made on the norms of some items, it will be applicable and highly valuable in rural areas such as Iwate and Okinawa as well as in urban areas as Tokyo.
    抄録全体を表示
  • 宇佐見 隆廣
    46 巻 (1980) 5 号 p. 237-260
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Based on the examination data (N=12.964) of the Nationwide Basic Survey on Adult Diseases from 1971 to 1974, the distribution of ECG findings were obtained by the Minnesota Code, and a statistical survey was conducted on the interrelationship between abnormal findings using a Cr coefficient, and on the relationship between the ECG findings and the host and environmental factors. The results are as summarized, b'eiow.1. Results observed from the ECG of Japanese adults had high frequencies of left R waves (19.6%), I-type ST depression (5.67%), J-type ST depression (3.9%), negative T waves (6.37%), flat T waves (5.43%), and so forth.2. Compared with the findings of epidemiological studies in. the U.S. and Europe, some differences were revealed. First, the occurence of two types of ST depression was significantly higher in the ECG findings of Japanese adults, while only I-type ST depression was higher in those of American and European adults. Second, abnormal Q waves, left axis deviation and negative T waves were salient for American and European adults, while left high R waves, J-type ST depression and complete right bundle branch block were salient for Japanese adults. Another difference in frequency was found in the male and female ECG findings. Frequencies of abnormal Q waves, left axis deviation and left high R waves were conspicuous for males, while those ofI- and J-type ST depression, negative T waves and flat T waves were conspicuous for females.3. Premature heart beats and sinus bradycardia were related with aging more closely than others. Frequencies of abnormal Q waves and left axis deviation were noticeable in the male ECG findings, while the frequency of A-V conduction defect were noticeable in the female ECG findings. These findings were related closely with cerebral apoplexy, hypertension and myocardial infarction. They are also related with sympto-matic tightness, breathlessness, rhythm abnormalities, thin skinfold, positive proteinuria and abnormal fundus occuli findings.4. The frequency of left R waves was salient in the hypertension group, irrespective of sex and age, presenting its close relations with blood pressure . The frequency of J-type ST depression was conspicuous in the hypertension group for females at all ages, and in males 40 to 60 years of age, which also shows the close relation with blood pressure. These ECG findings are relevant to anamneses of cerebral apoplexy, hypertension, myocardial infarction and other heart diseases. Especially significant was the relationship with hypertension.Observed from the standpoint by district, occupation, and work condition, the frequencies of left R waves and J-type ST depression were high for those residents in the districts along the coast of the Japan Sea, those engaged in agriculture, fishery and forestry, and those engaged in outdoor physical labor.5. Typical ECG findings closely related with age and blood pressure, were I-type ST depression and negative T-waves. These findings have a relation with all anamneses of cerebral apoplexy, hypertension, myocardial infarction and other heart diseases. They are also related with symptomatic breathlessness, rhythm abnormalities and thin skinfold. The relationship with hypertension was noticeable, and also associated were positive proteinuria and abnormal fundus occuli findings. Observed from the standpoint by district, occupation and work condition, the frequencies were significant for those residents in the districts along the coast of the Japan Sea, those engaged in agriculture, fishery. and forestry, and those engaged in outdoor physical labor. Anlyzing nationwide ECG findings, highlighting the peculiarity of heart diseases, and comparing them with those in the U.S, and Europe, this paper pointed out some racial differences, and proved and existence of epidemiological characteristics from the relationship between ECG findings and host and environmental factors. It further urges that aging and
    抄録全体を表示
    • |<
    • <
    • 1
    • >
    • >|
feedback
Top