民族衛生
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48 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の4件中1~4を表示しています
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  • 諸岡 妙子
    48 巻 (1982) 2 号 p. 57
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 縣 俊彦, 丸井 英二, 豊川 裕之, 前田 和甫
    48 巻 (1982) 2 号 p. 58-69
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    We studied the physique of school children in Yamabe district, Ohami-shirasato town, Chiba prefecture from 1904 to 1977. The main results were as follows: The physiques (height, weight and chest measurement) of the children admitted to school from 1904 to 1907 were better than average for children of the same ages, throughout Japan. Gradually the measurements became less than average. However, children admitted to school in 1972-1974 were better than average in some aspects of physique. Rohrer indexes of the children were usually superior to the all-Japan averages. Considering the chronological change of the indexes between urban and rural areas in Japan, the physique of the children in Yamabe district has changed from that of a rural area to that of an urban one. In principle component analysis, the eigen values of principle component 1 distributed from 11.0 to 13.4 and explained 60%-70% of the variances of all measurements. In factor analysis, factor 1 explained about 80% of the variance of all mesurements Factor loadings were higher for height than those for weight and chest measurement for all school years. The estimated communalities of 2 big factors were generally high in all measurements.
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  • 久常 節子
    48 巻 (1982) 2 号 p. 70-93
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study is a descriptive, comparative study which attempts to explore the nature of autonomous community organizations involved in self help health activities . The data was collected by individual interviews with representatives from 36 community organizations which dealt with health problems in Matsukawa-cho, ma-gun, Nagano-ken, Japan, from April, 1980 to March, 1981. The research findings are as follows. 1. Almost all activities of the community organizations, which are comprised of various small groups, are based on BURAKU (neighborhood communities). The organiza tions are autonomous with regards to structure, financing, activities, and the election of ficials. Co-ordination of activities of the organizations is carried out at the town level through meetings. 2. The joing process of decision making is considered to be important. Themes are diverse and relate to community life and activities. 3. Professionals are deeply involved with the organizational activities. Among the professionals are public health nurses, the social science teacher, and the nutritionist. The professionals have expertise in the areas of organizational management, and in the clarification of problems through people's self help activities and fact finding studies. 4. The people's expectations of the professionals is clear. The adult educator is to be a teacher, directly assisting in their learning; an organizer; and a supervisor of the other professionals. The public health nurses are co-workers in the diagnosis and treatment of problems; organizers and facilitators; and health specialists. The people expect the professionals to help them to develop and deepen their own understandings . They see themselves as the initiators, and the professionals as a support team . This view is particularly strong with respect to the physicians. 5. While activities are centered around small groups, the groups function as a system which reaches throughout the town. The connection of each professional and the supporting local administration is well defined, and secures the professional's role within the system.
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  • 加納 克己, 山口 誠哉
    48 巻 (1982) 2 号 p. 94-99
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
     PMI(Proportional Mortality Indicator)は全死亡数の中に占める50才以上の死亡割合を示す健康指標の一つである。この指標の算出は簡単であるが人口構成の知識なくして観察集団の健康水準を把握することができるとともに死亡構造についても明らかにすることができるために粗死亡率よりも有用であるといえる。 著者はPMIを用いて1920年から1978年における我が国の全死亡のみならず,脳血管疾患,悪性新生物,心疾患など14の主要死因の長期傾向について,従来用いられた50才の基準年齢の代わりに50才だけでなく60才,70才,80才を用いて分折した。その結果,全死因に関しては第2次世界大戦の前と後では明らかに傾向の違いがみられ,戦後の著しい上昇が認められた。とくに肺炎及び気管支炎は戦前は男女とよに30%を割っていたのに戦後は急激に上昇し,男女ともに1978年にはPMI50で90%以上となり,これらの疾患による死亡が若年層から高年齢層に移動したことを示している。また脳血管疾患におけるPMIは戦前も90%近くで極めて高かったがPMI60,70,80においても高くなりつつあり,この疾患による死亡がさらに高年齢に移動していることを示唆している。
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