As human waste is collected by Japanese communities, the human waste can be utilized in comparative nutrition research. We can attempt both qualitative and partially quantitative analysis of the elements contained in human waste. Human waste contains a total of about 20 elements, including Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Al, and so on. This research focused on 5 elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe), and utlilized the methods of filtration and precipitation. Quantitative analysis of the filtrate and of the clarified liquid 'resulting from the precipitation process, revealed a variation by method in the amounts of Ca, Mg, and Fe present. Amounts of Na and K were not so variable. The postulated explanatior is that the Ca, Mg, and Fe are insoluble, whereas the Na and K are soluble, and therefore present in both liquids. Accordingly, it would appear necessary, in nutrition research based on human waste analysis, to homogenize the waste, in order to obtain representative samples and assure accurate measurement of the elements. As there is seasonal variation in diet, individual preference, and regional diversity, we must assume that it is necessary to consider these differences in accounting for fluctuations in the quality and quantity of elements found in human waste. This is the subject of my proposed future research.
In order to make clear the food consumption structuer of a population, it is necessary to examine food consumption after excluding effect of polyvorousness in terms of structural analysis. For this purpose, the authors try to divide food consumption into components for total amount of food intake and its residuals using principal component analysis for external criteria. Used variables are the amount of 16 food groups (g/day·capita) 123 housewives aged 30-59 surveyed at a mountain village in Gifu Prefecture. The results are as follows. 1) It is found that the component of external criteria mean polyvorousness (to eat a large amount of food), which is caused by the food pattern consuming much other foods than rice for the staple food in Japan and is attached importance in terms of the food ecology. Therefor the methodology analyzing problem of polyvorousness is better with the way than with standardization of food consumption by total energy. 2) The first component signifying different dietary habit between rice and bread is extracted from the residuals excluding effect of external criteria. The food pattern consuming much rice is performed by women of households.engaged in agriculture, forestry and wage labor. On the other hand, the food pattern consuming much bread is performed by women of households engaged in trade and salaried labor. 3) It is recognized that the second component is the food pattern handed down from old times at the mountain village. That mean increase in consumption of rice, fish and espacially potato, and is performed by housewives of farmer and aged household.
The comparative mortality figures (CMF) and the standardized mortality ratios (SMR) by industry by the cause of death among the male workers in 1955 in Japan were observed, and at this time two different death rates for standardization were employed: the first was the death rate of all the male population and the second was that of the male workers. As a result the values of the CMFs and those of the SMRs were found empirically to be very similar in both of two ways of standardization. Then the above-mentioned two kinds of the SMRs by industry by the cause of death among the male workers in 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970 and 1975 in Japan were calculated, and the secular trends of those two kinds of SMRs were observed. The upward trends of both SMRs in "mining" and "electricity, gas, water and steam industries", and the downward trends in "manufacturing", "wholesale and retail trade" were appeared. The hazardous effects to the health in certain industries were thought to become apparant by the use of the death rates of the workers.
The sole replicas were obtained by Monkemoller-Kopelan method from 878 children aged 6, 11, 13, 14, 15 and 21. In these replicas the length and width of the sole and the big-toe angle were measured, and the development of the foot shape by age and sex, the process of the deformation of the foot and the characteristics of the sole were observed. In this report, the author observed the big-toe angle which is said to be most influenced by the sole deformation caused by footwear, and discussed the appearance of the angle and its significance. 1) In the males the width of the sole increased according to the increase of the length, while in the females the width decreased to show a narrow foot shape when the length was beyond 21.Scm. 2) In many cases the big-toe angle became large in parallel with age, which was particularly true in the females. It suggests that the male supports the body weight on the whole sole but the female does the same on the big-toe. 3) The decrease of the foot width observed in the females is related to the appearance of the big-toe angle, and the narrow foot is able to support the body weight easily by the aid of the increasing big-toe angle. 4) The appearance of the big-toe angle is due to the characteristic walking of human beings on two feet keeping the body upright. The acquired skill in walking is considered to accelerate the formation of the big-toe angle in childhood.