A study on the medical examination for the family contacts of newly registered tuberculosis patients was carried out . The tuberculosis patients were registered at Kurume Health Center, from January to December of 1975 . The results were as follows: 1. The percent of persons in a family receiving physical check-ups was 77 .8. A higher percent of females were examined, and the check-ups were lower in 70 years old than all persons. 2. The newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients were five (2.0%) males and thirteen (4.0%) females. There is a very high prevalance rate, and it is a very important point for tuberculosis control, considering that by medical examination it is rare to diagnose tuberculosis in residents or school children having no past family history of tuberculosis. Also, persons having a past family history of tuberculosis has a higher risk of contracting tuberculosis. It is important for tuberculosis control to examine this particular group. 3. The family of the tuberculosis patients belongs to a high risk group and so they must be given the following criteria in order to elevate their physical check-ups . 1) Plan an annual tuberculosis examination at a health center. 2) The physician, the X-ray technician, the medical laboratory technician, the nurse and clerk must cooperate with each other for tuberculosis control . 3) The health center should make a schedule for the person in order to receive his examination easily. 4) Comprehend exactly the tuberculosis contacts and reconfirm the physical checkups in the other hospital or clinics. 5) Persons should be given notice for a tuberculosis medical examination at least 3 times, if they have not received an examination within the 3 months.
With the intention of making a comparative study of generation life tables for Japan and England-Wales, the writer constructed two life tables from 1908 birth cohorts, the earliest cohorts with adequate data for comparison. In addition, the writer compared generation life tables for 1908 with current life tables, with the 3rd life table for Japan (1909-13), and English Life Table No. 7 (1901-10), and studied the relationships between them. The results were as follows: 1. Comparison of the two generation life tables for persons born in 1908 in Japan and England-Wales showed that conditions for Japanese men had been generally worse than conditions for English men. This was especially obvious for the generation under 40 years of age. On the contrary, for the generation over 40 years of age, biological differences between males and females were more significant than social conditions for each nation. Moreover, for ages over 100, the mutual relationship between qx and ex for males versus for females, as compared with qx and ex for the population under 100 years of age, was reversed. In other words, the suggestion is that the survival conditions for females, compared with those for males, seemed to be growing worse. Further study in the future: is required. In addition, the half life of lx was 53 years of age for males and 60 years of age for females in Japan, and 68 for males and 76 for females in England-Wales. The half life for Japan was 15-16 years shorter than for England-Wales. And the expectation of life at 0 years of age, e0, was 45.82 for males, and 48.74 for females in Japan, and 55.48 for males, and 61.69 for females in England-Wales. Comparing Japan with England-Wales, e0 was 9.66 years shorter for males, and 12.95 years shorter for females in Japan. On the other hand, life expectancy was greatest at 3 years of age for both sexes in Japan, and at 2 years of age for both sexes in England-Wales. (See Table 14, Fig, 14) 2. Comparing generation life tables with current life tables in Japan and England-Wales, nqx and ndx of the generation life tables were lower and less than those of the current life tables. On the contrary, lx and ex of the former were for the most part higher and longer than those of the latter. The values of each function of the generation life tables of both countries were more advanced than those of the current life tables on a scale of progressive civilization. In addition, it was reaffirmed that generation life tables reflect death-survival conditions more accurately than current life tables. (See Fig. 5?`12) 3. Comparing life expectancy at O years of age in Japan and abroad, by way of a comparison between a generation life table and a current life table, e was, for the most part, a few years longer according to the generation life table. The numerical difference was greater in foreign countries than in Japan, and was greater for females than for males. (See Table 5) 4. According to the generation life table for the 1908 cohort, e was 7-8 years longer at half life for females and 6 years longer at quarter life for females than for males . Life expectancy at 0 years of age was 2.9 years longer for females than for males in Japan, and was 6.2 years longer in England-Wales. From these statistics, we concluded that survival conditions in both countries were superior for females as compared to males. (See Fig. 3 and 4, Table 5) 5. In conclusion, we considered the utility of generation life tables as compared to current life tables, and suggested topics for further consideration.
When public health researchers and practitioners want to estimate the health level in the past time more than half century ago, they are usually confused by the deficiency of statistical data, especially in a small community. Nevertheless, health needs in the small community have become recently the most important administrative problem, so that the authors have concerned with health estimation in the small community . The utilization of necrology is also conducted on this research program. About 7, 000 deceased cases are collected out of the necrologies in five temples during 115 years, 1862-1982, at Mitoh-cho, Yamaguchi Prefecture. While description of mortal age is necessary for estimation of health level, the mortal age is not always described at the deceased in every necrologies. Cases with mortal age are counted up to 80.1% in male and 79.2% in female in the necrologies which the authors have inspected . Some very young cases without the mortal age are also identificated their deceased age in terms of the posthumous Buddhist name in which infants and toddlers are given specific name of "gaiji" or "gaijyo" to boys or girls respectively. Sex identification also are perfectly reliable by the posthumous Buddhist names.1) The authors counted at first the deceased by year, and at next step the deceased by sex and age, after that they showed patterns of the deceased number in each category in both of tables and graphs. The surveyed year are broken down into 4 intervals: 1868-1910 (I), 1911-1935 (II), 1936-1955 (III), 1956-1982 (IV) according to both of histological aspects and Patterns of incidence.2) The rate of the younger death less than 10 years old is decreasing in accordance with the intervals.3) Sex ratio (male/female) is so high in the II intervals that World War II influenced more strongly to male than female.4) When the average deceased age observed are compared with Japanese life span, there are no discrepancy between them until the II interval, nevertheless the former is lower than the latter after the War.5) while the young adult generation decreased in rural areas for the sake of migration which is caused by industrialization and non-agriculturalization throughout Japan, there is a lower average of mortal age in this community, so that the authors suspect that this community's health level is somewhat lower than the Japanese average of health level. The authors would argue that necrology is available as to estimation of health level in the small community.