To study the cause of difference in death rate from non-car-accident and adverse effect by prefecture in Japan, accidential death rates (ADR) were calculated by subtracting corrected death rates from car accident from those from accident and adverse effect by prefecture in 1980, and relationship between ADR and 33 items of prefectural character, income per capita, consumer price index and livelihood protection rate was studied by correlation and factor analysis, and the following results were obtained. 1) Correlation coefficients between ADR and 23 items in man, and 21 items in woman were significant, and of the partial correlation coefficients, the coefficient between ADR and livelihood protection rate in man was significant. 2) Factor analyses were carried out with the significant items (excluding livelihoc protection rate for man) and 2 factors (F1 and F2) were extracted, and the F1 was es mated to be rural character factor. 3) The correlation coefficients between ADR and the F1-score and the F2-score in man, and the F1-score in woman were significant, and of the partial correlation coefficients excluding the influence of livelihood protection rate in man, the coefficient between ADR and the F1-score was significant. The above results suggest that rural character relates to the causes of difference in ADR by prefecture in Japan for both sexes, and poverty to those for man.