Home Screening Questionnaire (HSQ) is a parent-answered questionnaire based on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME Inventory and was developed by the JFK Child Development Center, Univ, of Colorado in 1977 to evaluate a child's home environment. The HSQ consists of multiple-choice, fill-in-the blank, and Yes/No questions and each HSQ item which positively contributes to the child's development is counted into a total score. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the HSQ could be used for Tokyo children and to make comparison between child's environment in Tokyo and Denver. The Subjects and Method; The subjects were selected from the visitors to public health centers and well baby clinics in 1982-1983 either in a compulsory health check-up or in voluntary health onsultation. Results; (1) As the first step, answers to the Questionnaire were collected in 1982 from 200 mothers of toddlers and 130 mothers of three years old . All the items and the scores of the HSQ were analized according to the original HSQ manual . Some differences in the norms of the HSQ items were found between Tokyo and Denver. It was found necessary to modify the scoring of 6 of 31 items of HSQ for 0-3 years, and 8 of 34 items for 3-6 years. One item is both ages had to be omitted. (2) As the second step the field trial was conducted in 1983 for 144 mothers of toddlers and 106 mothers of three years old. The HSQ was modified based on the 1982 study. The results demonstrated that this modified form was useful as a screening tool to identify the high risk home environment. Similarities of the norms of the HSQ were found between Tokyo and Denver in 19 of 31 items for 0-3 year HSQ and 14 of 34 items for 3-6 HSQ, but there were also differences in the rest of the items in both age groups . In conclusion, the scoring method of the original HSQ should be modified due to the cultural differences in child rearing behavior and environment between two countries . The meaning of the similarities and differences of the norms of the HSQ scoring between two countries were also discussed. This paper was presented at 10th World Congress of Social Psychiatry, Sept. 4 - 8, 1983, Osaka, Japan
In this article, an attempt to develope a new assessment procedure is reported, which enables helping professionals (doctors and co-medical staffs) to understand the various aspects of the daily life of the chronically sick person undergoing medical treatment, to assess the necessity of interventions, and to indicate the aid that would be required. This assessment procedure (Assessment of the chronically sick person in medical and social welfare points of view) is expected to enable helping professionals to reach common points of view, and to help practitioner-reseachers to evaluate-the results of team medical care or social work objectively. Procedure of new assessment is as follows.1. Collect information by open-ended interviews with the patients and his/her family.2.Assess his/her living conditions following a set of criteria. Analysing the results of interviewing survey and assessment (Subjects are 119 "complex disease" patients), 16 items of the criteria were reclassified into the following 7 categories.a. a.Years from the onset of diseaseb. Human relations in social groups, excluding the familyc. Human relations within the familyd. Human relations in medical settingse. Problems associated with the medical systemf. Financial statusg. Severity of illness and disability
The fluctuation in erythrocyte cholinesterase levels and a battery of liver function tests (serum Alk. Phos., GOT, GPT, LDH, r-GTP, and Tot. Chol.) were measured over a year in farm workers using pesticide sprays . The relationships between pairs of those values observed in 18 male workers and 12 female workers were them examined and the results are presented as follows. 1) For our investigation we used the subjects who had had samples drawn during the months of May, July, October, and January of the following year, because the number of subjects who had blood samples drawn every month of the study was extremely small . Thus, we examined the blood samples of 12 study subjects who had samples drawn during each of the four seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter, respectively. 2) The coefficients of variation for serum GOT, GPT, γ-GTP, and TG, measured during the year for the twelve subjects were high, while the coefficients of variation for Alk. Pho., LAP, and Tot. Chol., as well as erythrocyte cholinesterase were low . 3) A comparision of men and women using the coefficient of variation for each of the indices revealed a significant difference (p<0 .05) only for Alk. Pho. and GPT. 4) Over the period of one year, a total of 99 blood samples from male subjects and 70 samples from females were collected . The correlations between pairs of the values for serum Alk. Pho., GOT, GPT, LDH, r-GTP, LAP, and Tot. Chol, for these samples showed almost exclusively significant positive correlations (p<0 .001, or p<0.01). On the other hand, the erythrocyte cholinesterase levels in men showed a positive correlation only with the serum triglyceride (p<0.0l) and in women showed a positive correlation only with the serum GOT (p<0.05). 5) Furthermore, when looking at the relationships between erythrocyte cholinesterase and liver function indices on a month-by-month basis for each sex, a positive correlation was seen only between erythrocyte cholinesterase and Alk . Pho. for men in the month of June (p<0.05). For male samples drawn during other months and for all female samples, no other positive correlation was seen between erythrocyte cholinesterase and any liver function index. Thus, with the, above results and according to other references cited below, we must conclude that measuring cholinesterase levels in the erythrocytes of farm workers u sing pesticides would be very useful in their health care management for the prevention of pesticide poisoning.
To investigate the cause of difference in the expectation of life by prefecture in Japan of late, relationships between the expectations of life by sex, age and prefecture in Japan in 1980 and prefectural character items (33), temperature items (3), economic items (3), educational items (2) and medical items (3) were studied through simple correlation, partial correlation, multiple correlation and factor analysis, and the following results were obtained. 1) Correlation coefficents between the expectations of life by age were significant and large in each sex excluding those for 65 year-old man. And there were high correlations in the expectation of life for 65 year-old man and woman. 2) Partial correlation coefficients between the expectations of life for 0, 20 and 40 year-old men and items concerning substantiality in mind and livelihood protection rate, those for 0 year-old woman and dependence on religion, those for 20 year-old woman and adaptability, and those for 65 year-old woman and taste for fish and education were significant. 3) Correlation coefficients between the expectations of life for 65 year-old man and factors of temperature and urban environment, and those for 40 year-old woman and factors of urban environment and easiness of life were significant. 4) On the forward selection procedure of multiple correlation between the expectations of life for man and items, the similar items were selected for the first or second variable to the cases of partial correlations and factor analyses . Above results suggest that factors relating to the difference in the expectation of life by prefecture differ between sexes and ages, and substantiality in mind and poverty relate to that for man under 65 years, so do temperature and urban environment for 65 year-old man, while dependence on religion relates to that for 0 year-old woman, adaptability for 20 year-old woman, urban environment and easiness of life for 40 year-old woman, taste for fish and education for 65 year-old woman.