In order to know the recent trend in the expectation of life (ex) in Japan, annual changes and geographical distributions of ex were studied, and the following results were obtained. 1. Annual distributions and regression coefficients showed increases of ex with year, the rates of which were large at old age and of late year. 2. Regression coefficients of differences of ex between ages under 65 years old on year were smaller than those of ex at 65 years old, and elongations of ex at 65 years old seemed to exercise great influence on those under 65 years old. 3. Ranges and coefficients of variation of ex by prefectures were getting smaller year by year, so were the differences of ex between prefectures. 4. Most correlation coefficients between ex at 65 years old and differences of e between ages under 65 years old were not significant, and factors relating to death seemed to differ between ages over and under 65 years old. 5. Correlation coefficients between e and differences of ex between years were negative and significant, suggesting that elongations of ex were large in the prefectures where ex had been short. 6. Correlation coefficients of ex, differences of ex between ages under 65 years old and between years, between sexes were positive and significant, and trends of ex seemed to be similar in each sex.
Based on the death records covering a 15-year period 1967 to 1982, the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for selected sites of cancer were calculated for each of 96 local community units (14 cities, 73 towns and 9 villages) in Kagoshima prefecture. These local communities characterized by the SMRs for different sites of cancer were classified by the cluster analysis using the statistical package BMDP 2M on MELCOM III computer at the Kagoshima University. Results are as follows: 1) With a criterion of chi-square value 30 in the cluster analysis, the 96 local com munities were classified into four regional groups (Cluster I, II, III and IV), each of which could be regarded as the group of local communities with similar characteristics of SMRs for different sites of cancer. The proportion of the number of local communities on Amami islands to total ones was heighest in Cluster I, while that of cities was highest in Cluster IV. 2) The levels of SMR for esophageal cancer were generally high across the four clusters for both sexes, the highest being in Cluster I. The SMR of this cancer was also related to the amount of sale for alcoholic beverages, suggesting that the high consumption of a strong drink "Shouchu" could provide a clue to the clustering of this cancer in the Amami-islands. 3) The levels of SMR for stomach cancer were generally low throughout the four clusters for both sexes. One of the probable causes responsible for the low mortality of this cancer could be explained for the small percentage of?gSake?hin total alcoholic beverages. 4) For cancer of the lung, the patterns of SMR were associated with the amount of sale for cigarettes among the four clusters for females but not for males with no evidence of increasing risk of this cancer with increasing cigarettes consumption. 5) The levels of SMR for cancer of the female breast were generally low throughout the four clusters, the lowest being in Cluster I. Furthermore, the SMR of this cancer correlated with the number of physicians for population unit and inversely correlated with the percentage proportion of farming population among the four clusters, suggesting a low risk of developing this cancer in the lower socio-economic class. 6) For cancers of the liver, pancreas, uterus and other sites and leukemia, no evidences of suspectable causal association were found between the SMRs of these cancers and the indices for correlation with socio-economic status or personal habits.
We estimated the sodium and potassium intake of Japanese immigrants in Brazil and Bolivia by casual urine sampling. Urinary Na/K (mEq/mEq), NaCI/Cr (Cr: Creatinine) (g/g) and K/Cr (g/g) were calculated as indices. The Filter Paper Method was used for the collection and transportation of urine. Na, K and Cr concentrations were measured by flame photometry and colorimetry. Brazilian Indians in Amazonas state and native Bolivians in a Japanese settlement were added to the subjects for comparison. We also measured blood pressure level and body dimensions. The following results were obtained. 1) Japanese immigrants had the highest urinary Na/K and NaCI/Cr values, which were 4.20 and 11.64, respectively. There were also differences among each of the settlements. Indians had the lowest values, which were 0.76 and 4.21. Bolivians had intermediate values, which were 2.94 and 6.98. 2) With regard to K/Cr, indians had values (3.94) double those of Japanese (2.08) and Bolivians (1.97). 3) Positive correlation between Na/K or NaCI/Cr, and negative correlation between K/Cr and blood pressure level were found among each group. 4) Indians had no cases of hypertension and no gradual increase of this with age. 5) Daily salt intake of Japanese hypertensive cases in Bolivia was 12.7g, which was estimated by the twenty-four hours excretion of NaCI.
Activities of blood cholinesterases were evaluated to assess the health condition of 65 farmers consisting of 33 male and 32 female. All of the blood cholinesterases; whole blood cholinesterase, erythrocyte to cholinesterase and plasuma cholinesterase showed higher activity in winter than in summer. Farmers exposed frequenthy to pesticide showed slightly higher activities of blood cholinesterases than non-exposed farmers . It, however, is not statistically significant. Whole blood cholinesterase activity had the highest sensitivity and predictive value negative, while erythrocyte cholinesterase activity exhibited the highest specificity and predictive value negative. However both of then did not apper to be significant. These results did not indicate the useful ness of evaluating blood cholinesterase activities as the screening test for pesticide exposure.
A study to describe physical status of school children (6-7 years old) in Kakegawa City, Sizuoka Prefecture was investigated, based on data of height, weight, circumference of the chest, body-trunk, sitting height, 120% over weight (for height) and Rohrer's Index. Longitudinal survey from 1971 to 1979 shows; 1) Smaller physical status compared with average national figure. 2) Shorter legs as compared to the body-trunks among school children surveyed. 3) An increasing number (yearly) of over weight among school children. The study proposes a development of a maternal education program through an integration of school health survey and maternal and child health program.