Previously, I have discussed the changes within the life cycle, or turning-points in life and their interrelationships and changes from the Tenpo era to the present. In another paper, the attention is focussed on the last phase of the life cycle, specifically upon the custom of abandonment of the elderly as reflected in various traditions and works of classical literature. Numerous sources exist, however reliable sources are limited ; thus the studies were limited from the Tenpo era to the present. During the research, I discovered the massive work "on Retirement" by Professor Muneshige Hozumi of the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo which examines numerous works of ancient Western, Chinese and Japanese literature. This work is the result of diligent effort and examines the handling of the elderly from a legal viewpoint. According to Professor Hozumi, Indian Holy Scriptures state, "Human life is divided into a student period, a "head of the family" period and a retirement period". This classification agrees with my model of the life cycle in some respects. The first edition of this book was published 95 years ago and already belongs to the historical literature. In order to provide a reference for the continued study of the senescence period of the life cycle, I have confirmed portions of the references cited in Professor Hozumi book at the National Diet Library, University of Tokyo General Library, University of Tokyo Faculty of Economics Library and Faculty of Culture Library. Using the materials obtained from this book as a foundation (references at the end), an overall treatise on the handling of the elderly was written using the custom of cannibalism which probably originated from victimization of the elderly as well as the custom of abandoning of the elderly with final supplement by my own opinion. The range of studies on the life cycle is extensive beyond the limit of any one science. What I have unearthed is only a shallow outline. Discovery of a basal structure of cultural and social life persisting through a long time span may be a contribution to the study of human ecology.
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a food additive which has been commonly used in fish meat, ham and sousage as a food color fixative. Effects of NaNO2 on pregnant mice, fetuses and neonates were studied using CrJ : CD-1(ICR) mice for three generation. NaNO2 was orally administered to the first and second generation pregnant mice during critical and pericritcal periods of organogenesis in the fetuses in order to examine embryotoxic and teratogenic effects. In mice, NaNO2 was given at dose of 120 mg/kg per mouse once a day for 5 days from day 0 to 4, day 3 to 7, day 6 to 10, day 9 to 13 and day 12 to 16 of gestation. The findings obtained were summarized as follows : 1) In the first generation pregnant mice, suppression of the body weight gain was observed on the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th day-groups. 2) Body weight of off spring of the 1st generation and the 2nd generation was observed significantly lower in the experimental groups than the control group on 70 days of age. 3) Neither suppression of body weight gain nor other adverse effects on the dams and thier fetuses were observed in all non-administration groups of the 2nd generation.
In order to investigate the relation of both sodium and potassium intake to blood pressure in Aomori prefecture, N a/K, N aCl/Cr and K/Cr (Cr : creatinine) in spot urine, estimated salt and potassium excretion, salt intake score (score) and the salt concentration of miso-soup from 2572 males and 2844 females aged 40-69 years were determined. The correlations between above indices of sodium or potassium intakes and blood pressure were investigated. The results were as follows : 1. Mean Na/K, estimated salt excretion, score and salt concentration of miso-soup were significantly higher in males than in females (3.79vs 3.55, 10.72g vs 9.73g, 3.lvs 2.6 and 1.03% vs 1.01% respectively). Mean NaCI/Cr and K/Cr were higher in females (12.8lvs 10.18 and 2.66 vs 1.97). Mean estimated potassium excretion was not different significantly (2.27g in males vs 2.29g in females). 2. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in males than in females (133.3mmHg vs 130.8mmHg and 81.5mmHg vs 79.0mmHg). 3. Among 67 communities, significant negative correlations were found between the expectation of life of forty years in males and their urinary Na/K, NaCI/ Cr or estimated salt excretion. 4. Partial correlations taking into account the factors of age, height and weight were calculated. Systolic blood pressure was correlated with Na/K positively and with K/Cr, the estimated potassium excretion or score negatively in both sexes. While diastolic blood pressure was correlated with Na/K positively and with K/Cr or the estimated potassium negatively, in males only.
Epidemiological analysis of accidents in the working field, with a particular emphasis on the frequency distribution of accidents, was carried out on the accidential injuries that had occurred among the workers of the industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Lobor Standard Office during the 1-year period January to December 1980. The followings were the main findings of this study. 1) When the kind of occupation and the size of workers were arranged, the distribution for the frequency of accidential injuries per an enterprise conformed to the negative binomial distribution rather than to the Poisson series, suggesting that every enterprise was not equally exposed to the risk of accidents. The enterprises having small number of workers appeared to have lower accident risk as compared with those having large number of workers for all the enterprises involved but the reverse was true with respect to the accident rate for the enterprises at the risk which were associated with accidents. 2) The distribution for the frequency of industrial accidents per a worker conformed to the negative binomial distribution for all the workers of all enterprises but to the Poisson series for the workers of the enterprises at which the accidents occurred. Assuming that the frequency of industrial accidents per a worker for those who had at least one accident is a truncated Poisson distribution, the number of workers at the risk of accidents was estimated by trial and error. 3) The distribution for the frequency of accidents per a day conformed approximately to the negative binomial distribution rather than to the Poisson series, indicating that the days having high accident risk tend to cluster. The frequency of accidents was highest on Monday followed by Tuesday and the lowest being on Sunday. 4) The internal stractures of accidents were compared among the different occupational groups of enterprises. These stractures involved sex, age class, experience, time of injury, nature of injury, type of acident, causative agent, part of body injured and the duration of absence from work.