An analysis of KAKOCHOO (the death registers) of three villages reveals the mortality trends in the Shiga rural region as follows : 1) Pre-1875 yearly and monthly death tolls jumped intermittently. After 1875 the modern hygenic administration ceased these fluctuations. 2) Before 1875 the number of deaths increased from July to September is presumed to be due to digestive epidemics. 3) Surface water drinking aggravated the summer infections. 4) During the July-September peak in 1796-1875, the adult mortality was significantly higher than the child mortality. This is attributed to increase of perinatal deaths. 5) The mortality fell temporarily around 1920 and decreased monotonously after 1945. 6) Mortality decline of the region was delayed due largely to surface water drinking, while the national mortality had been declining since 1900. 7) Infant mortality with nominal share of 40-45% would have been much higher if unrecorded child deaths due to miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, abortion and infanticide had been included.
In order to make clear inter-relatinoships among leukocyte counts and leukogram, active smokers and passive smokers, this survey was performed. Leukocy counts were tested in 241 non-smoking men of adults and 531 active-smoking men of adults in 1981. And 76 non-smoking men and 134 active-smoking men were also examined in 1985. All adult subjects were confirmed to be healthy by the complete physical examination of Automated Multiphasic Health Testing and Services Center in Tokai University Hospital before this study. For the survey of passive smoking effects, healthy schoolchildren were selected by the health examinations which were regularly held at the F. elementary school in Suginami Ward, Tokyo. After they were divided into non-passive and passive smoking groups according to their familiar smoking habits, leukogram counts and leukogram were measured. The results were as follows: (1) Leukocyte counts in smokers were significantly greater than those non-smokrers. Leukocyte counts were increased dose-effectively with increasing the number of cigrettes smoked, and correlation coefficient in these parameter were significiant. (2) Although leukocyte counts of passive smoking group in schoolchilren were slightly greater than those of non-passive smoking group, these cliff erenses were not significant. But leukocyte counts of boys group who were passive smokers originated from both parents smoking or mothers smoking were higher significantlly as compared to non-passive smoking group. Correlation coefficient between the number of passive cigarettes smoked, and leukocyte counts was significant, but it was smaller than that of active smoking group. (3) Basophilic leukocyte counts in passive smoking group were higher than those of non-passivesmoking group and passive smoking group originated from mother's smoking showed the highest level, but these were not significant statistically. Correlation coefficients between passive smoking level, and eosinophilic leukocyte and monocyte counts were significant.
Trends in the death rates of the upper classes in Japan were revealed by the investigation of obituary notice columns in a major national newspaper. The authors analyzed differences among occupations (professers, executive bureaucrats and executive businessmen) and contrasted the upper classes for the general population. Results were as follows : 1) Obituary notices from 1935, 1955 and 1975 indicated a trend of an increasing in the mean age at death. No difference was found among the occupations and from the general public. 2) In 1935, causes of death for upper classes were not significantly different from general population rates. In 1955 and 1975, the upper classes, especially executive businessemen showed a significantly higher death rate from heart diseases, and in 1975, a significantly lower death rate from cerebral stroke, as compared to the general population. 3) Within the upper classes, the ratio of rates of death in hospitals vs. rates of death in private homes showed a change over time. In 1935 and 1955 only 3 out of 10 deaths occured in hospitals whereas in 1975 the ratio was 7 : 3. Compared with the general public, the upper classes showed significantly higher proportion of deaths in hospitals, both in 1955 and 1975. With regard to selected causes of death in hospitals (cancer, heart diseases and cerebral stroke), the leading cause of death in both 1955 and 1975 was cancer. In 1955 the rate of deaths due to heart diseases was higher than that due to cerebral stroke, but this was reversed in 1975. In these rates there were no significant differences between the upper classes and the general public.
Scalp hair samples were collected by mails from 177 married couples who were living on Satsunan Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture. The hair was analysed for total mercury and the difference in its mercury concentration between husband and wife was investigated in relation to the frequency of fish intake, drinking habits and hair treatment. Results were as follows: 1) Husbands had significantly higher hair levels of mercury than wives, the average values being 6.42 ± 3.79ppm for husbands and 3.13 ± 2.22ppm for wives. However, a correlation coefficient obtained for hair mercury concentration between husbands and wives was statistically significant. 2) Hair levels of mercury increased steadily with increase in the frequency of dietary fish intake for both husbands and wives. Husbands had also higher hair levels of mercury than wives, notwithstanding that no difference in the distribution of dietary fish intake was observed between the sexes. 3) Likes and dislikes in fish eating, drinking habits and shampoo treatment did not significantly relate to the hair mercury concentrations for both sexes. 4) In wives, a declining gradient in hair mercury concentration was found with increased frequency of permanent wave. However, the low levels of mercury concentration in women's hair than men's hair were not fully explained by this factor.