Out of 2399 eighteen month old and 2183 three year old children undergone medical examination, 1704 were examined twice. Cohort study on linguistic states was done using data of speech and language development of the 1704 children.Based on the results of the medical examinaiton at eighteen months old, 1418 had been diagnosed as having a normal speech and language development and, thereby, were classified as the normal group. The remaining 286 children were diagnosed as having a delayed speech and language development and, this was the delayed speech and language group. At age of three years, 1402 children (98.9%) in the normal group were capable of producing three-word sentences and 16 children (1.1%) uttering one or two-word sentences. In the delayed speech and language group, 237 children (82.8%) uttered threeword sentences, 40 children (14%) produced one or two-word sentences, and 9 children (3.2%) expressed no meaningful words.The delayed speech and language group and the normal group were compared on development of linguistic state. Following results were obtained: (1) The groups were compared in terms of speaking or not speaking three-word sentences. There were significantly more children capable of three-word sentences in the normal group than in the delayed speech and language group (p<.001). (2) The delayed speech and language group was divided into three subgroups: Group of the one or two-word sentences, the understanding meaning of word and the indifferent children. A significant difference in speech and language development was found between the normal group and one or twoword sentences group, and between the normal group and understanding meaning of word (p<.001). (3) There was a significant difference concerning the speech and language development between the normal group and group of the indifferent children (p=.0470) (p=0.384), (4) Children capable of three-word sentence speech were further divided into fluent speakers and influent speakers. Influent speakers children who, though capable of speaking, showed ambiguous word production, baby talk, or stuttering, were classified.The normal group significantly differed from the delayed speech and language group in terms of the frequencies of fluent and influent speakers (p<.001). (5) From the results of the individual follow-ups, it was revealed that there would be a need for medical examination after three years old and before entering into elementary school. There is also a need for recinsideration of personnel organizatization as a helping system for the delayed speech and language children.It was uncovered that, at age of three, there were more delayed speech and language children in the children who had been diagnosed at age of eighteen months as a delayed speech and language than in the children who had been diagnosed as a normal. The individual follow-ups of delayed speech and language children showed that those children often have problems in mental and neurological development other than language problems. These findings suggest that a medical examination is recomended to follow up delayed speech and language children before entrance into elementary school.
In order to study a role of folk medicine for local medical systems, the author investigated how much folk medical knowledge the inhabitants of a local village in northern Okinawa had, in 1984. The results were as follows: 1. Respondants had less knowledge of vernacular names of diseases, as their generations descended. On the other hand, there were only minor differences between generations as to knowledge of common names of diseases. 2. Younger respondants had somewhat less knowledge of folk etiology than middle age and older ones, which had about equivallent knowledge. 3. There was striking tendency that the younger respondants' generations were, the less knowledge of folk or popular medical treatments they had. 4. In general, women tended to have a greater store of folk medical knowledge than men. Both sexes of older respondants, however, had equivallent and abundant one. 5. The auther couldn't find relationships between quantity of folk medical knowledge and behavioral and socio-economical factors: language, belief to visiting "Yuta" (shaman in the Southwestern Islands), birth place, marital status, education, and occupation. The above results suggest that a role of folk medicine for local medical systems in a rural area of Okinawa prefecture might be decreasing with development of cosmopolitan medicine, exclusive of folk etiology or folk medical treatment of chronic or allergic diseases to which it is difficult to apply effectively etiology or technology of cosmopolitan medicine.
The purpose of this investigation was at first to clarify the clinico-epidemological characteristics of hypertension in Tochigi Prefecture, especially in Ishibashi Town, second to examine the usefulness of echocardiography in a community survey on cardiovascular diseases. The results were as follows: 1. The trends of mortality of hypertensive heart disease in Tochigi Prefecture. 1) The mortality of hypertensive heart disease in Tochigi Prefecture showed a tendency to decrease for these ten years. It was higher in Tochigi Prefecture than in all over the country. 2) The survey of National Health Insurance records in Ishibashi Town revealed that 56.6% of the patients with cardiovascular disease accompanied with hypertension. 2. The epidemiological findings on cardiovascular diseases in Tochigi Prefecture as compared with those all over the country. 1) The averages of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were lower. 2) The incidence of left ventricular highvoltage and ST-T change in electrocardiography was higher. 3) The incidence of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris was lower. 4) The incidence of silent myocardial ischemia was higher. 5) There was no difference of hypertensive heart disease between in Tochigi Prefecture and all over the country. 3. The multivariate analysis of findings of the community survey on cardiovascular disease (mainly ischemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) in Ishibshi Town. 1) Severity of hypertension, anamnesis of hypertension and subjective symptom of heart in relation with ischemic heart disease. 2) Anamnesis of hypertension and abnormality of electrocardiography in relation with hypertensive heart disease. These factors above mentioned were suggested to have strong relation with ischemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease, by application of the quantification method of Hayashi's second type to data of a community survey on cardiovascualr diseases in Ishibashi Town. 4. The relation between echocardiography and blood perssure level. 1) There was a significantly clear relation between thicknes of intervascular septum and blood perssure level (p<0.01), and also between thickness of postrior wall and blood pressure level. 2) Diastolic descent rate of mitral valve made a clear decrease adversely to the level of blood pressure. 3) Partial correlation coefficient of examination items in the community survey with the level of blood pressure was the highest (0.42) in thickness of intervascular septum of echocardiography, secondly higher (0.33) in anamnesis of hypertension and thirdly higher (0.14) in age factor. 4) Examination of pertial correlation coefficient of those factors by age revealed that in age group from 30 to 59, thickness of intervascular septum of echocardiography had the highest correlation (0.46) with blood pressure level and in age group more than 60 anamnesis of hypertension had the highest correlation (0.60). Findings above mentioned are likely to suggest the usefulnes of echocardiography in community survey on cardiovascular diseases, as well electrocardiography and other methods of examinaiton.
The features were studied concerning adult females under 49 years old living in Shiramine-village, Ishikawa Prefecture feeling coldness in some part of the body. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Frequency of females feeling coldness in some part of the body increased with age. 2. The part of the body in which the subjects felt coldness most frequently were the lower limbs. 3. In the thirties, frequency of smoking in females feeling coldness in some part of the body was higher than that in females not feeling coldness. in the fourties, serum HDL cholesterol in females feeling coldness in some part of the body was significantly lower than that in females not feeling coldness. In addition, atherogenic index (AI) in females feeling coldness was significantly higher than that in females not feeling coldness. These results suggest that in females there might be some relationship between feeling of coldness in the body and smoking, and/or feeling of coldness in the body and atherosclerosis.
Although the prevalence of runnig water and electric washing machines in presentday Japan approaches 100%, there are still some places where washing by foot at common outdoor washing spots is effectively practiced, making use of spring or hot spring water and river water. Of these areas, the Okutsu Hot Spring area in Okayama Prefecture, where hot spring water is used, and the Hachinohe City Shirogane area in Aomori Prefecture, where running spring water is used, were chosen as the areas to be studied. In both these areas, we measured the health status and physical strength of groups of women practicing washing by foot and compared our findings with the standard values of Japanese women. Of the items measured, the requisite muscular strength at the time of washing by foot, namely such variables as grip strength, back strength, strength of ankle plantar flexion strength of ankle dorsal flexion, and strength of foot digitorium flexion were all found to be stronger in the group of women commonly washing by foot, compared to standard Japanese values. It became clear, that by using one's own feet for washing, extremely good development of all the basic muscles involved resulted. In addition, based on the results of heart rate, blood pressure, obesity index, and the results of a health status questionnaire, it was found that the present health status of those persons performing long-term washing by foot is very good and that their physical condition is also very good.