As there have been rapid changes, not only in diet and food, but also in social infrastructure in the last 20 years in Japan, it should be expected that Japanese attitudes towards food items have also changed. In order to effectively improve both education and health programs, it is essential to make clear what opinions have/have not changed. For this reason, the authors carried out a nationwide survey on the images towards breads, salad, tempura, grilled fish and other food times of about 21, 200 students of 64 junior high schools in 1988 and 1989. The questionnaire consisted of pair comparisons, i.e. modern vs. old-fashioned, cheap vs. expensive, daily vs. occasional, like vs. dislike, commercially-produced vs. made at home, easy to cook vs. hard to cook and domestic vs. exotic. A rating scale with 7 stages was used. One of the authors, H. Toyokawa, Previously administered the same survey to students of five junior high schools in 1967. As two of these junior high schools are included in the current survey, the authors attempted to clarify substantial changes in images and attitudes towards food items. The two above-mentioned public junior high schools had total student populations of 672 boys and 631 girls in 1967, and 430 boys and 432 girls in 1988. The results were as follow: 1) In both schools, students' images of 4 food items-bread, salad, tempura, and grilled fish- changed during the two decades. 2) The differences which had been found between the schools in attitudes towards these 4 food items in 1967 had greatly diminished by 1988. This diminishing was the most significant in attitudes towards grilled fish. Changes in the socioeconomic characteristics of each school's area was seen to be an associated factor. 3) Nevertheless, the two matched-pair categories?gdaily vs. eventual?hand?glike vs. dislike?hshowed little change for every food item during the twenty years. 4) It is suspected that food images among junior high school students are affected not only by the dietary situation in their homes but by both mass-communication and practical experiences as well, including school lunches, and the distribution system, etc.
Using the mortality statistics issued by the Kagoshima prefectural government, the relationships between infant, neonatal or early neonatal mortality rate for a 15-year period 1971 to 1985 and the sex ratio at birth, the indicators of selected socioeconomic conditions or the measures of some ionic concentrations in drinking water were examined among a total of 96 local authority areas (city, town or village). The following results were obtained. 1) Among the 96 local authority areas, the sex ratio at births was positively correlated to the mortality rates for male's early neonates, male's, female's or total neonates and female's infants, respectively. 2) The percentage of girls or boys who enter senior high schools was inversely correlated to each of the early neonatal, neonatal and infant mortality rates. However, this correlation was not significant for male's early neonatal mortality rate only. 3) The percentage of junior childbearings was inversely correlated to female's or total neonatal mortality rate while that of senior childbearings was positively correlated to male's infant mortality rate. 4) Of the 13 ionic concentrations in drinking water, only 3 ions were significantly correlated to early neonatal, neonatal or infant mortality rate, in that, Cl- was positively correlated to the mortality rates for female's and total neonates and female's infants, CO3-- negatively to total early neonatal mortality rate and Ca++-Na+ negatively to the mortality rates for female's or total neonates and female's infants. 5) Results of multiple regression analysis showed that the mortality rates for infants, neonates and early neonates were attributed to none of the 13 ionic concentrations in drinking water.
Scores of the Todai Health Index, THI, of 404 nurses in a university hospital were compared with those of community women. Nurses showed much higher scores in the scale of?gIrregularity of daily life?hand scales related with mental complaints such as" Impulsiveness", "Mental instability", "Depressiveness", and the discriminant value of neurosis. On the other hand, scales related with physical complaints did not differ much from those of the community women, while nurses of 25 to 39 years old showed higher scores in some scales related with fatigue of total body, eye and skin, due presumably to their heavy work load. As a consequence, the aging pattern of health conditions of nurses was unique, showing no clear peak of the menopausal complaints. These findings suggest that not only physical but also mental health has been affected by their work loads, which needs to be improved.