A survey study on the incidence of stroke was carried out in Tochigi prefecture from October 1988 to September 1990. 2, 337 cases of stroke were registered during one year and 2, 006 cases were first patients. We studied the risk factor of stroke from 398 paired data using 3 methods: 1) McNemar's paired match analysis, 2) Hayashi's quantification II analysis, which is one of the multivariate analysis methods and 3) dose-response analysis. In order to omit confusing factors, the data were stratified by the following classes; sex, age, district and stroke type. The data were analyzed from two viewpoints. One of the viewpoints was primary prevention of stroke according to life style and family history. The other was secondary prevention of stroke from clinical findings and subjective symptoms. From the viewpoint of primary prevention of stroke, the risk factors were; physical activity, family history such as stroke and hypertension, lack of soybean intake and intake of alcohol. Cerebral infarction was affected by smoking in dose-response. Alcohol intake dose-response appeared in males more than females, it affected the 50-59 age group more than the under 50 and over 59 age groups. It increased the risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage more than cerebral infarction or subarachnoidal hemorrhage. From the viewpoint of secondary prevention of stroke, one of the risk factors was anamnesis of hypertension. Cerebral hemorrhage was related to maximum high blood pressure and cerebral infarction was significantly connected with serum total cholesterol level in dose-response analysis.
Intake, excretion and distribution of cadmium in the HIMEDAKA Oryzias latipes were investigated using 109Cd. Fish were reared in Cd aqueous solution, in that coexisted with cysteine (CySH), in that coexisted with EDTA and in that coexisted CySH plus EDTA, respectively. The concentration of the chemicals was shown in Fig. 1. In the comparison of Cd distribution of the fish reared in sole existence of Cd, intake of Cd in the alimentary canal and depressed intake in the other viscera was observed under the coexitence of CySH. On the other hand, a remarkably depressed intake of Cd was observed under the coexistence of EDTA. The effect of CySH was cancelled in the simultaneous existence of EDTA. Fish were also reared in Cd aqueous solution, in Cd + CySH aqueous solution and in Cd + EDTA aqueous solution, respectively, for 72 hr. The concentration of the chemicals in this experiment was shown in Fig. 7. After the exposure, the fish had reared in Cd were transfered into distilled water, the fish had in Cd + CySH were into CySH aqueous solution and the fish in Cd + EDTA were into EDTA aqueous solution. The promoting excretion of Cd under the existence of these chemicals was observed. From the observation, a possible mechanism of effect of the coexisted chemicals was discussed.
To clarify the factors related to the sensation of coldness in the fingers of hands, shape and fingertip skin temperature of the middle finger of both hands were measured in 132 female students The results obtained were as follows. 1. There were 24 subjects (18.2%) who had sensation of coldness in the fingers. 2. There were no significant differences in the Body Mass Index between the subjects with and without sensation of coldness in the fingers. 3. The length of the middle fingers of both hands in the subjects with sensation of coldness in the fingers was significantly longer than that in the subjects without sensation of coldness in the fingers. 4. In summer there were no significant differences in the fingertip skin temperatures between the subjects with and without sensation of coldness in the fingers. However, in winter skin temperature in the subjects with sensation of coldness in the fingers was significantly lower than that in the subjects without sensation of coldness in the fingers..
We have already reported the results of an in-patient survey which had been carried out at a private mental hospital, examining demographic, clinical, and institutional factors. The patients have now been followed for a further 3 years and the factors contibuting to their discharge have been analysed. At follow-up, 231 subjects are still in the hospital whereas 76 are living in the community. The in-patient ratio (in-patient/out-patinet) between the two groups has been calculated and analysed by calculating the crude Odds ratio and the multiple logistic model, based on the variables rated at the first stage of the survey itself, contributed to the in-patient ratio; the adjusted Odds ratio is 2.14. The Global Severity Rating (GSR) which is the second highest, is 1.58. This finding confirms quantitatively the discussion that longterm hospitalization itself makes discharge more difficult. Based on these findings, we comment on some issues which have to be confronted in deinstituonalizing mental hospitals in Japan.