To elucidate the food intake structures of three meals, i.e., breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and also snacks between meals, we conducted nutrition surveys on 62 females living in Nakano-city (agricultural district) and 50 females living in Shirahama-town (fishery district). By means of descriptive statistical methods and factor analysis using 23 food group data for each meal, the main results obtained are as follows. 1. Nakano-city had higher mean values of rice, miso, and other vegetables, though these of confectioneries, fruits, seaweeds, and fishes were significantly higher in Shirahama-town. 2. Rice, bread, and eggs were mostly consumed at breakfast. By means of factor analysis, the first factor extracted is positively related to the intakes of rice, miso, pulses, and other vegetables, i.e., the "gtraditional food pattern", while the factor is negatively related to bread, oil and fats, fruits, milk and its products, i.e., the?"modern food pattern". 3. The first factor in lunch foods is almost the same as that in breakfast. The second factor is related to noodles and side dishes with positive loadings, and rice and miso with negative values. It is found that the difference of the second factor score is statistically signinif icant between the two districts. 4. At dinner, Rice, noodles, meats, and fishes are more comsumed but bread and eggs are less than those at breakfast and lunch. The first factor is related positively to rice and negatively to noodles, and the second factor is thought to be related to side dishes. The difference of means of the first factor score between the two districts is not less than but closed to five percent level, while the difference of the second factor score had highly statistical significance. 5. The first factor for sanck foods is related to (the leftovers of) side dishes of other meals. The second factor is related to bread and confectioneries with positive factor loadings and to noodles and seaweeds with negative values. Statistically significant dif f ereces are found in both of two factor scores between two districts. 6. For total daily food intakes, the first factor is related to rice and Miso with positive high factor loadings, and bread, noodles, confectioneries, and seaweeds with netagive values. The second factor is related to the side dishes such as vegetables, pulses, fruits, and fishes. statistically significant differences were found in both of two factor scores between the two districts. 7. To be more practical and effective for the further nutrition education at community level, the food intake patterns for each meal should be taken into consideration as well as regional features.
Food demand and supply in China was inferred at the year of 2000, 2005 and 2010 in relation to three basic nutritional factors : calory, protein and fat which were divided into animal and vegetable origin. Food demand was estimated as the product of population (median variant projection by U.N.) and food consumption per capita (two cases were hypothesized). For food supply, crop and livestock were major target under consideration. Crop supply was estimated as the product of cultivated acreage (hypothesized to decrease at the statu quo rate) and production per unit area (two cases of increase rates were hypothesized). Livestock supply was estimated on the basis of percentage consumed as feed (three cases were hypothesized) of whole supply of crop. The study of food supply-demand balance for the period, in which 12 case combinations were hypothesized, manifested the results as follows : (1) Rapid transition of Chinese food comsumption pattern (from traditional crop and vegetableoriented to westernized meat-oriented) is difficult to realize. (2) Supposing present status of Chinese diet remains unchanged, it is presumably possible to meet the food demand. (3) Even so, if enhanced productivity can not be expected in the future, food crisis might appear when population growth and decrease of cultivated acreage were taken into account.
The Japanese version of Home & Östberg's Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and a self-administered health questionnaire known as the Todai Health Index (THI) were administered to a group of 143 women, aged 18-23 (average 19.0), who were at the time students in programs of nursing or medical technology. This sample was divided into three groups, 15 definitely and moderately morning, 101 intermediate, and 27 definitely and moderately evening types according to MEQ. These percentages were not so different from the results of other investigators. The morning type and the evening type were compared using the t-test on the 12 scale scores and 2 discriminant values of THI. The evening type group had significantly higher score than the morning type group in the scales of "gmany subjective symptoms" and" irregularity of daily life", and higher but not significant in the scale of "complaints on digestive organ". In other words, the morning type group had more regular daily life, fewer physical and mental symptoms, and fewer complaints on digestive organ than the evening type group. These findings indicate that so-called Morningness-Eveningness relating to the different biochronology phase in daily life, includes a factor of regularity-irregularity in daily life, and closely related to physical and mental symptoms. These results are supported by those obtained from many nvestigations on Morningness-Eveningness.
The questionnaires on handedness and a number of biological attributes were asked to 1, 964 Japanese female students to explore the relationships between them. Most items analysed were found to have no relationships to handednes but strong relationships were found between handedness and the ability of physical exercise, the cardio-pulmonary function, the occurrence of urticaria and the thickness of body hair. Ambilaterals were superior to dextrals or sinistrals in the abilities of physical exercise and the cardio-pulmonary function. The inclination to left-handedness was prominent in females whose body hair was thin. The significant linear regression was found for the proportion of dextrals on the frequency of urticaria and on the difference between the number of clockwise hair whorls and that of counterclockwise hair whorls.