The prevalence of essential hypotention was cross-Sectionally surveyed among 58, 000 adult workers in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and differences in hemodynamics were analyzed between hypotensive patients with subjective symptoms and those who were asymptomatic. The overall prevalence of hypotension, defined as a systolic blood pressure of less than 100 mmHg, was 8.9%. By sex, the prevalence was 1.4% in males and 14.7% in females. Males were thus outnumbered by females by ratio of 1:10. The prevalence of essential hypotension, accounting for 74.7% of all forms of essential hypotension, was 6.7%. By age, the prevalence of essential hypotension was high in the younger age groups and decreased with age. One or more of subjective symptoms out of seven symptoms prepared were observed in 27 .5% of all the essential hypotensive patients. By sex, the prevalence of subjective symptoms was higher in females (28.3%) than in males (20.0%). The prevalence of symptoms tended to increase with age, but declined after the sixth age decade. The prevalence of symptoms in essential hypotensive patients was significantly higher than that in normotesive subjects and patients with borderline to definitive hypertension . The main symptoms in essential hypotensive patients were general malaise/ fatigue (14.6%), vertigo and dizziness (8.5%), and headache/forgetfulness (6.9%). The prevalence of the these three major complaints declined with a rise in blood pressure, suggesting their usefulness in the diagnosis of hypotension. Hemodynamic variables were compared in the group of hypotensive patients with symptoms versus that without symptoms. Although there were no intergroup differences in supine hemodynamics, the group with symptoms showed a classical hypotonic form of orthostatic dysregulation, corresponding to the?gdysdynamische Syndrome?hof the classification of Deilus, in the tiliting test. The prevalence of small hearts did not differ between the two groups.
133 male students aged 19-20 were classified into the following 3 groups; irritable persons, complain or no complain persons using criteria of CMI Q item. These subjects were loaded 90 watt 20 minutes by bicycle ergometer. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-chol) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-chol) were measured before and after the physical load. The relationship between irritability and the observed values were analyzed by comparing with the values of the groups. (1)Irritable persons showed significantly higher level of TG, but lower level of HDL-chol than those of the other groups. (2)The relationship between TG level and HDL-chol showed significantly negative correlation of r=-0.48. (3)By bicycle load, irritable persons showed a higher changed rate of TG and a lower changed rate of HDL-chol than those of the other groups. (4)In irritable persons, there was significant higher correlation between the changed values of TG and T-chol by physical load (r=0.46), but we could not find out this relationship in the other groups. (5)Fifty percent of irritable persons showed A type behaviour. From these results, irritable persons show the tendency of A type behaviour, high TG level and low HDL-chol, and also high changed value of T-chol by load. Thus, it seems that the early detection of irritable person by screening using CMI and doing them the consulting may be effective to prevent the vascular disease.
In Sweden, Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has increased drastically since 1980, predominantly after 1985. Since 1975 fertility for age group of 25-39 has started to increase. Conversely, fertility for age group of 20-24 has decreased remarkably until 1984. From 1985 and later, therefore, fertility for most of age groups shows the tangible upward increase. Married fertility has increased consistently from 1980 through 1990, on the other hand unmarried fertility has remained stable until 1985 and increased thereafter. The current analysis suggested that fertility changes in Sweden are closely related to the scheme of paid maternity leave. The 1986 renovation seems to highly enhance the motivation of childbearing. However, the frame of scheme unexpectedly seems to bring about the increase of abortion rate at the same time. More importantly, the development of scheme for maternity leave presumably has come up in connection with the employment policy to recruit the welfare personnel, which is intended to cope with the ageing society. Considering reluctant promotion of maternity leave in Japan, the Swedish employment policy could offer the persuasive way of negotiating with the Japanese industrial world.
The purpose of this study is to assess the significance of sports for maintaining the health of elderly person . A three year follow-up study was carried out on 86 elderly persons playing gate ball, (53 males and 33 females, ) and 255 elderly persons not playing gate ball, (102 males and 153 females, ) Their health condition, life style, and daily activities were surveyed . The same subjects were also surveyed of the same items three years later. We compared the characteristics of the group playing gate ball (GB group) with those of the group not playing gate ball (n-GB group) . The results were as follows: 1. Number of the dead in the subjects whose questionnaire were not recovered was more for males than for females. In the males, the average age of those who had died was higher than that for the disabled . 2. The health status of the subjects in n-GB group became significantly worse in the three years. In the female n-GB group, the number of the subjects visiting a physician significantly increased compared with those of three years ago . Disability in daily life of both male and female in n-GB group increased significantly compared with that of GB group. 3. Number of subjects satisfied with their daily life increased in both groups in three years. In particular, they increased significantly in the n-GB group . In the GB group, all of the females answered that they were satisfied with their daily life . 4. In the males of the n-GB group, the number of the subjects not having a role in their family increased significantly compared with those of three years ago . The social participation of the males in the GB group and the females in the n-GB group decreased significantly in three years . 5. For both males and females in the GB group, the average number of hours playing gate ball increased significantly in three years. Many subjects of them answered that they assist houseworks other than playing gate ball. Though, the number of the subjects assisting housework decreased significantly in the females in the GB group in three years. Many subjects of them answered that keeping their health was their reasons continue to play gate ball for them. 6. Many subjects of both male and female in the GB group answered that gate ball was favourable in keeping their health, and that they became healthier in these three years. Furthermore, they answered that they felt tired after playing gate ball. 7. A physical examination showed little physical change in either group of the elderly persons.
Subjective symptoms and mental complaints of mild hypertensive people were surveyed by the Todai Health Index (THI), a scaled symptom checklist, as it has been said that the hypertensives have few or no subjective symptoms. Hypertensive subjects, 148 males and 184 females, were sampled from an adult population of some 5, 000 aged 40 to 69 years old in a village. They were once told by the physician they had high blood pressure and all of them perceived that they actually had high blood pressure. Their mean blood pressure was 147.50 and 144.12 mm Hg, for male and female subjects, with their standard deviaiton being 15.39 and 11.06 mm Hg, respectively. The paired controls matched for sex and age were selected from the normotensive people, whose mean blood pressure was 130.94 and 126.47 mm Hg, respectively. The male and female hypertensives had significantly higher mean scores in three scales out of a total of 12 scales:?gvague complaints?h, ?gimpulsiveness?h, and?gmental instability?h. They also had significantly higher prevalence rates in the following symptoms or items out of 130 items: ?goverweight?h, ?ghot flashes?h, ?gpain in various parts of the body?h, ?gdesire to occasionally to lie down in bed during the day?h, ?gbecome unfriendly when I meet an impolite person?h, ?gmentally tired?h, and?gdepressed?h. These results indicate that mild hypertensives have more physical complaints and are mentally irritated, unstable or weak. The hypertensive people who have perceived their high blood pressure have tried to spend their daily time schedule more regularly than the normotensives, which was revealed by the lower scale score in?girregularity of daily life?hscale of THI. Male and female hypertensives had different characteristics in three age groups of 40s, 50s, and 60s. Those symptoms or complaints of the hypertensive could be used for their lifestyle modification more effectively.