The objectives of this study were to analyze the correlations between mortality rates and drinking water quality in Okinawa prefecture, where the environmental conditions such as the weather, dietary habits and way of living, etc. exist within the same aspect. The qualities of 75 stream waters and 20 municipal drinking waters, the relationships between 15 component concentrations in drinking waters and 14 mortalites in female, 12 ones in male and 12 ones in both sexes were investigated for Okinawa prefecture. The main findings were as follows: 1. Comparing the average concentrations of the stream waters in various areas, the concentration of dissolved solids was found to be higher for Okinawa prefecture than these for other prefectures of Japan and the world, and in Okinawa prefecture that of dissolved solids was found to be much higher for its calcareous area than for its non-calcareous area. The same trends in drinking waters as the stream waters were shown, because the concentrations of drinking waters depended principally on the features of their sources. 2. Positive correlations were found between death rate from ischemic heart disease in female and concentrations of ABS, PO4 and SO4 with respective correlation coefficient r=0.706 (p<0.001), 0.590 (p<0.01) and 0.549 (p<0.05). 3. Plotting the scores obtained by principal component analysis in which four variables were the mortality from ischemic heart disease in female and the concentrations of ABS, P04 and SO4, the lowest mortalities clustered on the 3rd quadrant and the highest ones on the 1st quadrant. All of 4 drinking water sources of municipalities which had worst 4 mortalities were located in the calcareous area of the central part of Okinawa mainland. 4. A multiple regression analysis, where the mortality (Y) from ischemic heart disease was employed as criterion variable and the concentrations (X1, X2 and X3) of ABS, P04 and S04 as explanatory variables, was conducted to estimate the mortality from the concentration variable of drinking water . As a result of the multiple regression analysis, the following equation was introduced. Y=17.9 + 45.3X1-14.3X2-0.04X3 By F-test, high statistical signif icances were shown for the equation and the regression coefficient of ABS concentration at critical rates of respective 1% and 5%. 5. Uterine cancer mortality correlated positively with F concentration in drinking water (r=0.633, p<0.001) 6. Mortality from liver cancer in both sexes related positively to N03-N + NO2-N concentration (r = 0.601, p <0 .01) and negatively to SiO2 and K concentrations (r=-0.520, p<0.05 and r=-0.516, p<0.05) in drinking water.
This is a study concerned with the role of play and meaning in human life-span development. In this study, the word?gplay?his defined as a spontaneous, symbolic, and imaginative experience which is perceived as pleasure. It takes place during free time, which means the time left after doing necessary activities such as sleeping, eating, and work. A questionnaire method was used for female youths, to investigate how the pleasurable experiences related to time spent watching television from infancy to the present. The subjects were 187 female college students in Tokyo. The questionnaire consists of background information on the subjects, the time they spent watching television and essay descriptions of pleasurable experiences. It also includes questions whether the subjects are content with their present life or not and if there is any pleasurable experience which the subjects want to hand down to the next generation. The results were as follows: 1) The average number of pleasurable experiences of each period was 3 but there were considerable individual differences. 2) Comparing the subjects who spent a long time to watch TV with those who spent a short time to watch TV, some differences were found between these two groups. The latter named more pleasurable experiences, and were more content with their present lives and had more pleasurable experiences which they want to pass on to the next generation. The results suggest that pleasurable experiences in childhood is not only related to TV watching but is also related to the pleasure of the present and the future.
Eight hundred and two men and women of wide age range, responded to a questionnaire concerning signs of being old. Main results were as follows. 1) Physical health resources were most frequently cited (59 .0%) as the signs of being old. 2) Significant sex differences were found in five out of the ten indices of being old. While women regarded the decline of psysical resource and being granted a pension, men tended to view the retirement as initial signs of being old. 3) Significant age differences were found in eight out of ten indices. The middle age group viewed the declined of physical resources, young group viewed the receiving of a pension, and the old group viewed the failure of their memory, respectively as the incipent signs of being old. 4) Multivariate analysis of the ten incipient signs of being old by means of Hayashi's quantification theory type III yielded four groups. They were named, "role transfer along the life cycle", "being given an old age title", "physical decline and pension", and "loss of active interes
As we become increasingly aware of the serious effects of our life style on our health . condition, new theoretical bases must be established for preventive medicine and health promotion. With such a background, mass examinations planned for area resi-dents are becoming part of routine health care practice and these examinations are being increasingly better organized. Within this diagnostic system, the blood chemical analyses are important. From the viewpoint of preventive medicine, we believe that it would be highly advantageous if these tests are used not only to screen for diseases but also as indices for health guidance of nor-mal individuals (Higuch et al., 1994; Imaki et al. 1993). From this viewpoint, in the present study, we studied the appropriate-ness of serum cholinesterase activity as a health index. Since the importation of parathion into Japan in 1951, this organophosphte agent, together with organochlorine preparations, have been used in enormous quantities as a leading insecticide. Subsequently, frequent incidence of toxicoses associated with this and related agents have been reported, which resulted in active studies on the methods for the diagnosis of intoxication by various types of organophosphate agents (Cucuianu et al., 1975; Higashi et al., 1985). These agents potently inhibit cholinesterase and determining the activity of this enzyme has become a significant means for the diagnosis of intoxication by organophos-phate agents (Nakamura, 1989). The serum level of this enzyme is deter-mined in clinical diagnoses of conditions such as hepatic diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. Shibata (1970) reported that the serum cholinester-ase activity level is reduced when a patient is unable to eat due to malnutrition or esophageal stenosis and that this reduction parallels a reduction in the blood hemoglo-bin level, an important indicator of nutri-tional status. In an epidemiological survery conducted by Hirai (1976) in agricultural villages, the relationship between the serum cholinesterase activity level and factors related to food habit was reported. In addi-tion, there are reports on the relationship between the serum cholinesterase activity level and physical activity (Pawlowska et al., 1985; Ryhanen et al., 1988; Vihko et al., 1979). In the present study, we focused on the relationship among the results of various blood chemical analyses, hemodynamic data, posture, nutritional state, daily physical activity, and mild exercises.
We studied 388 cases who have consulted by telephone twice or more, and were selected from records kept at the Gunma Prefectural Mental Health Center since its opening (1986) until March 1993. For many cases, such series of consultations ended after no more than four calls, but 19 cases have lasted over several years or over a hundred calls. The most frequent type was related to mental illness of various sourts; the second most frequent concerned problems of children. Among the first type, many cases had visited psychiatric hospitals or clinics, increasing percentage wise as they passed the stages of their condition; first, anxiety overhaving fallen mentally ill; second, dissatisfaction or doubt about psychiatric treatment; third, anxiety over rehabilitation. Many cases felt completely at a loss over difficulties in finding solutions to their problems even after consulting with mental hospitals, clinics, or other counseling facilities. Cases continually used telephone for a sense of ease and/or familiarity with counselors of the Center. It was suggested that these continuing telephone consultations followed public relations that the Center's services were available without charge, and especially that they were so easily accessible by telephone.