Perceived health or self-rating subjective health was studied to identify its associated factors. A health questionnaire including the Todai Health Questionnaire (THI) was applied to 12, 630 inhabitants aged from 40 to 69 years. Respondent rate was 80.9%. Items other than THI are sex, age, medical history of chronic disease, treatment, spouse, job, academic carrier, and friends. A question "How is your health?" with five ordered response was used to assess the perceived health. The mean values of THI scale score of lie and aggression of poor (poor and very poor) perceived health were significantly lower than those of good (very good, good and moderate) perceived health. The mean values of other THI scale scores of poor perceived health were significantly higher than those of good perceived health. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between perceived health score and THI scale scores were all statistically significant, but all the values were under 0.4. Discriminant analysis was conducted to predict good and poor perceived health using listed variables. Items of the largest absolute value of standardized discriminant coefficient were medical history of chronic disease, vague complaints and depression of THI. Correct identification rate by nineteen items was 82.9% in man and 80.5 in woman.
The Japanese version of Home & Östberg's Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was examined of the construct validity, administered to 143 women aged 18 to 23, averaged 19.0 years old, who were college students of nursing and medical technology. 1) The subjects, 143 women, were divided into five types of Morningness-Eveningness by the criteria of Home & Ostberg (1976). One woman was definitely morning type, 14 moderately morning type, 101 neither type, 24 moderately evening type, and 3 definitely evening type women. 2) By the G-P analysis of 35 women of the highest scores (G-group) and 35 women of the lowest scores (P-group), it was found that the MEQ's two items of number 12 and 16 failed to identify G-group from P-group. 3) Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) obtained between total scores and scores of each item revealed that the three items in the MEQ, number 10, 12 and 16 were not significant. 4) Seven factors were extracted by principal factor analysis, having eigen value of more than 1.00. Only the first factor was accountable for morningnesseveningness with a major contribution rate of 24.5%. The MEQ's item number of 10, 12 and 16 had the lowest factor loading in the first factor. 5) Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.78 calculated with the MEQ now in use consisted of 19 items, and increased to 0.81 with the MEQ consisted of 16 items eliminated of the three items, number 10, 12 and 16. 6) These results suggest that the MEQ eliminated of the three items, number 10, 12 and 16, is more valid in the concept to identify morningness-eveningness, at least in our subjects, women college students.
The energy requirement for Japanese people 15 years old and over is publicly available (Energy Requirement in Recommended Dietary Allowances for the Japanese (Ministry of Health and Welfare 1989)) and is calculated according to activity level. The requirement for people 14 years old and younger, however, is calculated at one fixed level-level II of physical activity (Moderate), which equates to a daily activity factor of 0.5. This figure becomes the magnifying power against basal metabolism which is used to obtain energy required for living one day. Actual levels of physical activities, however, are not clearly known yet. Although some investigators have suggested that lower levels of physical activity may cause chronic disease in younger people, there is, as yet, little evidence to support this (Charney 1967, Saris 1985, Despres 1990). In order to obtain fundamental information to fill this gap, the energy expenditure (EE) and daily activity factors (DAF) of second grade students in junior high schools were estimated using the heart rate (HR) method as described in a previous study (Kida 1992).
Recentry mortality has decreased and Life Expectancy at birth increased, thus lengthening the aging population of China. In addition, the One Child Policy, designed in 1979 in China for slowing growth of the population, has acceralated the aging population in China more rapidly than in Japan. On the other hand, the health care of aged people is very necessary for the improvement of their Quality of Life (QOL). Concerning these social needs, Chinese Government and Japanese Aging Research Center have conducted comparative studies on health and care of aged population between China and Japan, and the author has contributed in these studies. The results were as follows: 1) Concerning the subjective health situation, the number of aged people who answered "very well" was higher in Tianjin than it was in Tokyo, even though the percentage who answered "bad" was almost the same level in both Tianjin and Tokyo. 2) Concerning the ability of daily life, active healthy aged persons account for about 90% in Tokyo, but about 80% in Tianjin. 3) As to care for aged persons, care-takers are the main consort in both Shanghai and Tokyo. In Shanghai, aged parents are usually cared for by their own sons and daughters, while in Japan, aged parents are usualy cared for by their daughters-in-law.