Nutrition surveys were performed to investigate the changes of dietary habits followed up from 1979 to 1989. The 116 subjects surveyed were middle-aged or older women in rural and suburban areas. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In rural areas, dietary habits showed remarkable changes after ten years. The percent energy from carbohydrate of cereal origin decreased, while that from both fat and protein increased. These trends were mainly due to less intake of rice and miso, and more intake of bread, cakes, oil and fats, soybean and bean products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and processed foods. In suburban areas, the percent energy variation was small, and the changes of dietary habits were characterized by less intake of oils and fats, and more intake of potatoes, seaweed and fish. 2. The changes of fat intake were especially different between these two areas. By log-linear analysis, both regional environment and amount of fat intake in 1979 inffluenced the change of that of ten years later. 3. In 1979, staple foods like rice or bread for breakfast characterized dietaryhabits and the differences in percent energy. But in 1989, there was no difference in these dietary habits among morning staple types. 4. The standardized intake of 19 food-groups were obtained from 116 subjects in both areas in 1979, and the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a principal component analysis. Factors causing food intake patterns were 1) Japanese vs. Occidental dietary styles; and 2) the intake of meats vs. fishes. The changes of food intake patterns based on the principal component analysis were different in these two areas.
To make a proposal for the new health indicator in a rapidly aging society with adequate social welfare, this study aims at elucidating the structural relationship of not only health and medical indicators including mortality statistics but also socioeconomic and welfare indicators potentially related to health. The author's explanation is based on the analysis of the annual data from the prefectures to clarify the mutual relations between socio-economic, welfare and health and medical indicators for the years 1970-1990. 1. The variables of the canonical correlation analysis were classified as (a) criterion variables: health and medical indicators in 1990 and explanatory variables: socio-economic and welfare indicators in 1980 and (b) criterion variables: health and medical indicators in 1980 and explanatory variables: socio-economic and welfare indicators in 1970. The result of the relationship among the explanation variables showed that the weight coefficient between health and medical indicators, that is, as age adjusted death rates, cancer age adjusted death rates and heart disease age adjusted death rates and such socio-economic and welfare indicators of a decade before the tertiary industrial worker rates, the sum of national annuity receipt and livelihood protection receipt rates was comparatively large. The result of the relationship among criterion variables suggested that the explanatory variables were negative in covariation with cancer and heart disease age adjusted death rates whereas livelihood protection rec ipt rates were in the reverse. 2. The correlation anlaysis of indicators of each year shows that the relations of socio-economic and welfare indicators to age adjusted death rates were very close in 1970 but lessened in course of time, while those to cancer and heart disease age adjusted death rates became stronger and that the negative covariant relationship between the tertiary industrial worker rates and age adjusted death rates in 1970 weakened year by and eventually, in 1970, became insignificant; these relations between health and medical indicators and the third industrial worker rates or the sum of the national annuity receipt represented the whole structural relationship in the canonical correlation analysis would lead to the proposal for the new health indicators: [2×(cancer age adjusted death rates + heart disease age adjusted death rates-age adjusted death rates) + (the tertiary industrial worker rates + the sum of national annuity receipt-livelihood protection receipt rates)] . 3. The author examined the above-mentioned indicators of the 41 cities, towns and villages of Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate whether the new health indicator is applicable for these comparatively small area groups or not. The results showed that the new indicator, having a correlation with the two indicators of a year: [cancer age adjusted death rates + heart disease age adjusted death rates-age adjusted death rates] and [the tertiary industrial worker rates + the sum of national annuity receipt-livelihood protection receipt rates] had a comparatively strong correlation with those indicators of the other years. Thus, the new health indicator was found to satisfy the conditions required for indicators; they are consistent indicators as those of a year was correlated with those of other years. In conclusion, this study proposes the new health indicator for the society aiming at complete welfare; it is based on the analysis of data from prefectures about not only conventional health and medical indicators but also socio-economic and/or welfare indicators and is shown to be applicable to comparatively small area groups (cities, towns and village). It suggests that the new indicator will be very useful for the future health policies including local social welfare in the coming society of a rapidly aging population.
Okinawa prefecture, consisting of the Ryukyu Islands in the southern part of Japan archiperago, is located in the subtropics. From ancient time, Okinawa had developed trading networks with China, Korea and many Southeast Asian countries and had received cultural influence from them. As the results, it is said that the foods consumed by, and food habits of, Okinawans, have been more similar to those in such countries than in Japan. The life span of Japanese has recently become longest in the world, and it has been longer in Okinawa than in any other prefectures. In this respect, special attention has been drawn to the historical aspects of Okinawan food habits. In the literature so far, however, typical foods, recipes and food habits in specific historical periods were documented but their compiled description throughout the history was lacking. This paper aims at a comprehensive description of the various events from the ancient time to the present to demonstrate their interrelation in a chronicle. Major a pects treated are introduction of foods, food production systems, food-processing, trades, marketing activities, food consumptions, religious roles of food services, and famines caused by natural and man-made disasters in relation to food habits.