Normal Japanese children are considered to have seasonal variation in body weight which increases in fall and winter and decreases in summer. However, abnormal seasonality was found in some of elementary school children in Tokyo, that is, body weight increased in summer in obese children. In most elementary schools in Tokyo, summer holidays begin in the latter part of July and end on August 31 . So, children might spend quite different life during the holidays compared with school days. The present study examined seasonality in body weight of 91 elementary school children living in Nagasaki City where the period of summer holidays is the same as in Tokyo. Then, the relationship between obesity and weight gain in summer holidays was discussed. Body weight has been measured monthly for six years (excluding August). Time-series analysis was made by the Program of Census Method II X-11 in which the original series O is assumed to be the product of three components as follows; O =C × S × I, where C is trend-and-cycle factor, S is seasonal factor, and I is irregular factor. Significant seasonal variations were observed in about 90% of the children. The pattern of seasonal variation of group means was low in summer and high from fall to winter or early spring in both sexes. Rohrer's index in 17 children were over 145 at least once through six years and they were classified as "obese group". Among the obese group 11 children had high seasonal factors from July to September, which indicates that body weight increased in summer holidays. In other obese children whose seasonal factors did not have peaks in September, Rohrer's index gradually lowered. Thus we conclude that weight gain in summer holidays is the most critical warning of obesity in school children.
The authors performed principle component analysis on the data of Korean (1969-1990) and Japanese (1949-1990) intakes of foods of different groups and compared changes in intakes over time. Although the analysis revealed that both Korea and Japan shifted from a diet which had put much importance on a staple food to one which stressed a variety of food items, it wasn't until between 1985 and 1990 that the Korean diet became comparable to Japan's diet between 1963 and 1965. While Korea shifted within the vegetable-oriented intake type, Japan shifted from the potato bean-oriented intake type to the vegetable-oriented one. In order to grasp the diet components of contemporary Korea, the authors performed a principal component analysis, using the 1988-1990 intake of different food groups in 14 regional blocks (n= 41). The analysis revealed that the first principle component indicated either the modern diet type or the traditional diet type. The second principle component indicated that the subsidiary food was either the fresh vegetable/seafood type or the processed vegetable/livestock type. The third component indicated either the fresh food type or the stored food type. Furthermore, the relationship between the 9 commonest diseases and diet in Korea showed that the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasm of stomach, hypertensive diseases, malignant neoplasm of lung, and diabetes mellitus was lower among people with a modern diet, while it was higher among those with the traditional diet. And thier relationship showed that the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasm of liver, ischemic heart diseases, and tuberculosis of respiratory system was lower among those with a diet of processed vegetables/ livestock type as the subsidiary food, while on the other hand, it was higher among those with a fresh vegetables/seafood type as the subsidiary food. In addition, among the food groups, the correlation of meat with all diseases, except ischemic heart diseases, that of eggs with all diseases, except diabetes mellitus, that of milk products with all diseases, except malignant neoplasm of liver and ischemic heart diseases, and that of processed vegetables with malignant neoplasm of liver and tuberculosis of respiratory system had a significant negative correlation coefficient, while the correlation of cereals with cerebrovascular diseases, maligant neoplasm of stomach, hypertensive diseases, malignant neoplasm of liver, and diabetes mellitus, and that of vegetables with cerebrovascular disease, malignant neoplasm of liver, ischemic heart diseases, and tuberculosis of respiratory system had a significant positive correlation coefficient.
Childbirths have been largely influenced by social environment and cultural value system in each society. The auther carried out field work in a village of the Lisu, who have inhabited mountainous in Mae Hong Son Province, northern Thailand, from August 1988 to March 1989. Based on both direct observation and interviews with all married women in the study village, childbearing behavior and its related cultural habits were mainly studied. Major findings about childbearing and childbearing custums and behavior were summarized as follows. First, no taboo associated with pregnancy and childbirth was observed and the women behaved according to their own judgement throughout the pregnant term. Second, episiotomy with razor was conducted as a technique in the home delivery case. Third, the women during delivery period were helped by their families and/or the neighboring women who had experienced childbirth.
Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of foreigners living in central of Japan. Consequently, there are many reports indicating problems on the part of foreigners as well as Japanese medical staffs. The problems, for example, stem from a lack of foreigners' understandings about the Japanese medical system as well as misunderstandings between foreign patients and medical staffs . Similar problems have occured in Fukuoka City, southern part of Japan. Nonetheless, there are currently no rigorous studies that have examined medical care for foreigners living in the city. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the problems in medical care for foreigners based upon questionnaire surveys. The surveys were conducted for 253 medical doctors having had foreign patients in the years 1992 and 1993 and for 37 foreign university students. Our analysis shows that major problems are largely due to difficulty in communication. Only 12.4% of foreign patients accompanied interpretors, including that difficulty in establishing a doctor-patient relationship. Foreign students found it difficult to obtain information on the city's medical system, while Japanese medical doctors are willing to know foreign medical practices and foreign cultures . Six point three percent of medical doctors had an experience of unpaid medical bills and they quite often provided insufficient medical treatments to their patients who had no ability to pay their medical bills. To alleviate the problems, our suggestion is to establish both dispatch system of interpreters and consultation system for foreigners as soon as possible . Besides, it is necessary to provide information about health insurance and medical services and customs of medical practices to foreign residents. Medical doctors in Fukuoka City still have not much experience in the association with foreign people, since we Japanese are a single race and have a single language. Hence, it is of great necessity for medical doctors to have greater knowledge in overseas medical customs and to make an effort of solve the problems in medical care for foreigners.