Utilization patterns of oriental medicine (Kanpo-igaku) were studied with questionnaire survey data obtained from 2, 713 cases in Japan and Korea in 1994. These samples were obtained from parents of pupils or students (primary schools, junior high schools, high schools, colleges or universities): 1, 110 Japanese and 1, 603 Koreans respectively. The utilization patterns in the two countries showed significant differences such as 9.3% of the Japanese as compared to 43.6% of the Koreans who visited oriental medical clinics 1-2 times a year. Reasons for the utilization of oriental medical clinics are shown as follows: among the Japanese respondents, 43.8% attended on "the recommendation of a close friend" in comparison to 59 .0% of the Korean respondents for "the better effectiveness of herbal medicine" . The health problems that made them to consult with oriental medical clinics among Koreans was "the possible strengthening of the body" (48.8%), but among Japanese, the majority of respondents (50.6%) cited "joint or bone diseases". Regarding the results after treatment, 80.2% of the Japanese and 82.4% of the Koreans respectively claimed to get satisfied. Japanese tended to feel that Oriental medicine would produce less side effects. However, many respondents in both countries suggested that oriental medicine was inadequate in caring for exclusion of surgical operations . Further, 80.1% of the Japanese respondents and 53.5% of the Korean respondents respectively emphasized a strong necessity of cooperative system between western and oriental medicine. Also, 84.3% of the Korean respondents and 60.9% of Japanese respondents suggested the necessity of specialist training in the field of oriental medicine.
In order to identify factors that may contribute to osteoporosis, a cross sectional study of Japanese females over the age of 50 was conducted at 13 health centers in Ibaraki Prefecture in the period from December 1992 through March 1993 . Based on the criteria employed by the Orimo Research Group at the Ministy of Public Health and Welfare, 136 subjects were classified as having osteoporosis. Analysis of these data revealed several statistically significant differences between subjects with osteoporosis and the control group (n=680) . Some factors potentially thought to be associated with osteoporosis were not found to be statistically significant. Exercise was less frequent among those with osteoporosis in the group of subjects aged 60-69. The calcium intake of those subjects 70 and above was also significantly less for those with osteoporosis. Additionally, menopause occurred earlier among those with osteoporosis for subjects aged 50-69 . However, there was no significant difference between the control group and the group with osteoporosis in the age of menarche, nor in the rate of childbirth . Nor were statistically significant differences found between the groups in alcohol drinking, smoking or sun bathing. With the exception of serum P for those aged 50-59, there were also no significant differences between the groups in serum Ca, ALP or albumin. Regarding health status, the health of subjects aged from 50-59 with osteoporosis was significantly worse. For subjects aged 60-69, the rate of bone fractures was higher for subjects with osteoporosis, though there were no significant differences between the two groups in fall related injuries occurring in the previous year.
The relationship between changes in blood hemoglobin levels and physical growth at puberty is evaluated on the basis of the three to ten years follow up of the eight cohorts in 819 school girls. Yearly change of the average blod hemoglobin levels in eight cohorts of the different, age and number revealed that the levels in general increased slightly between 6 and 12 years old, and decreased between 13 and 14 years old. The additional study is attempted on 151 subjects with a mean age of 12 years who were closely followed up more than 3 years and had accurate physical growth and age of menarch as well as a characteristic change in blood hemoglobin levels. The subjects were divided into two groups; normal group (Gn) having hemoglobin above 12 g/dl throughout the observation period and anemic group (GL) detected less than 12 g/dl at least one time during the study. There was no significant difference in the growth of the two groups. With regard to the 161 subjects, there was a difference in their occurence, blood hemoglobin levels, ΔT [the duration between the peak of physical growth (Tp) and the age of menarch], (Tm) and so on, when compared the cohort whose ΔT is less than 0.5 year with the one whose ΔT is more than 2 years. Subjects with shorter ΔT had delayed Tp and early Tm, and their blood hemoglobin levels tended to decrease, whereas ones with longer ΔT had earlier Tp and delayed Tm, and the blood hemoglobin level tended to be high.
To reccnstruct the food and nutrient intake pattern of the long-lived villagers in Okinawa during the Taisho and early Showa eras, a field survey was conducted in Janagusuku, Ohgimi village from November 1990 to September 1991, by means of participant observation and interviews with 39 elderly inhabitants. The major energy-supplying foods of the villagers usually consisted of sweet potato for breakfast and lunch, and porridge made of rice or cycad for supper. In the feasts for traditional annual events and other purposes which were held 20 times a year, rice, pork, fish, tofu and vegetables were consumed. The bulk of their food energy came from sweet potato and, to a lesser extent, rice. Households possessing no or small-sized paddy fields ate cycad more frequently than other households. Assuming that energy requirements were satisfied with only sweet potato and rice, per day sweet potato and rice intakes of a model household (husband, wife and three children) were estimated at 6.3-9.3 kg and 150-300 g according to different intensity levels of daily activity; protein intake per day per adult male was estimated at 21.5-32.4 g. The amounts of rice, pork and tofu which were consumed at the feasts were estimated as, respectively, 110, 209-348 and 220 g per day per model household, implying that protein intake per day per adult male was 15.8-21.7 g. It is thus concluded that food consumption in the feasts markedly contributed to the villagers protein intake, which was close to the safe level recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU.
Before long, it will be clear if parents wholly accept children requiring special care and moreover, the solution of parents affects the quality of eating habits of children. Research has been done concerning eating habits of two groups of mothers and their children who go to two different types of schools for children with special needs. One school provided a support system for mothers to help them accept their children as they are. The other school emphasized education and training rather than the acceptance of children. The results showed great differences among individuals' nutrients intake in both schools. As shown in the data, there are two different types of nutrient intake among the children; one comprises too much intake and other very little. Even though consumption patterns are different in these two groups, they all have a common problem: their food intake is unbalanced, or they consume very little of specific nutrients within their entire diet. Also, they tend to repeat the same eating patterns. Appropriate eating habits of children with special needs were suggested as follows: 1) Special individual care for each child. 2) In order to maintain stable eating habits, it is also important to maintain the health of care givers. 3) It is best to upgrade the eating habits without putting a strain on the children. 4) Assistance from the schools is consequential for those mothers so that they can easily accept their children. Once mothers accept their offsprings using the support system, they are able to feel secure mentally. Such parental confidence affects eating enviroment of the children with special needs. These facts lead to improvement of the quality of eating habits of such children.