The Random Digit Dialing (RDD) telephone survey method makes the telephone useful not only for collecting data, but for random sampling. The authors tried a health behavioral survey in a catchment area of TORO University Hospital, limited to Ohta-ku, to apply RDD Sampling Methods of telephone surveys in Japan. The findings were as follows: 1) The number of phone calls were 1, 202 times during 4 days (40 hours). The calling frequency was 30.05 times per hour. 2) Of all calls made, 17.7% were to non-working lines including facsimile lines, 2.4% to lines of out of the target area, 15.7% to business lines, and 45.3% had unsucessful contact due to absence. Therefore, respondents were 51.5% of all targets which were sampled. 3) As to the number of respondents by gender and age, there were more female than male respondents in all age groups. The biggest proportion by gender were responders in their twenties in male groups and responders in their forties in female groups. There was no bias in either gender or age group between respondent groups and population in Ohta-ku.
In order to assess the effect of passive smoking at home, 39 female junior college students and their mothers were surveyed concerning paternal smoking habits and asked to provide early morning urine samples in which the concentrations of cotinine (COT) and hydroxyproline (HOP) were measured. The concentration of urinary COT per gm creatinine (COT/Cr) of smoker was 1, 000 μg/g or more. There was no correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the father and the concentration of COT/Cr of either the mother or daughter. Their levels of COT/Cr remained 0-30μg/g irrespective of the father's smoking. The cases in which no COT was detected in either daughters or mothers were actually more frequent with heavier paternal smoking. There was also no relationship between the father's smoking and the concentration of HOP/Cr of the daughters and their mothers. One possible explanation of these findings may be that fathers who smoke at home do so outside of the room. Smoking by mothers was also found to not increase the concentration of COT/Cr of their daughters or rather low level of 5 μg/g. Thus, passive smoke at home did not show any effects on nicotine metabolite of daughters and mothers. The COT/Cr levels of daughters did increase significantly by 61 percent from 11.0 μg/g, as the result of a one hour exposure to heavy smoke in a meeting room.
This study has examined the relationship between weight fluctuation and the reported results of annual health examination including the death cases. The subjects were 658 adults (200 men and 458 women) aged 30 and older in Sashiki-cho, Okinawa, Japan, who participated in annual health examinations at least 7 times between 1986 and 1994. The subjects were classified into"need of medication", "need of care", "need of observation"and"within normal limit"according to the results of 7 to 9 annual health examinations: in addition, the cases of death were separately treated. Each individual's variability of body mass index (BMI), was assessed through both the gradient of time-dependent (age) regression and the coefficient of variation (CV). For the obese subjects (146 except dead cases) whose BMI was over 26.0 at the first examination, the relationship between weight fluctuation (BMI gradient and CV) and the change in the statement after annual health examination was investigated. The change of physical statement from the first 5 years to the latter 4 years was categorized to"getting better", "unchanged"and"getting worse". The findings of the analysis of variance and multiple classification table adjusted for two covariates (age and sex) are summarized as follows: 1) The gradient of BMI was tend to be negative in most death cases. The CV was higher in the worse cases of physical statement than in the better cases; 2) The cases of"getting better" showed that the gradient was downwards with increase of CV, whereas the cases of"getting worse" showed that the gradient was upwards with increase of CV. The weight in the cases of"unchanged" was almost unvariable. It is concluded that since weight fluctuation and change of the statements on physical condition were associated, it is desirable to keep an individual's body weight within an adequate range, paying attention to weight fluctuation .