The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of allergic symptoms on mental and physical condition of school students. Two separate investigations, a cross-sectional survey and a follow-up survey, were carried out in order to establish a relationship between allergic symptoms andthe CFSI (Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index) factors in high school students. The CFSI questionnaire included various clinical symptoms' indicators as well as daily life inventories, which reflect physical and mental health problems. The sample (n = 4064) of the first investigated group consisted of first, second and third grade students enrolled in general, business and industrial courses at a higher secondary education level. The second investigation, which was a follow-up survey, treated the first grade students (n=1316) in the first investigation sample. The questionnaire contents consisted of diagnostic items regarding allergic symptoms and items of CFSI. Those students who complained of more than three items of allergic symptoms or who have had ever been diagnosed as suffering from allergies by a physician, were defined as students with allergic symptoms.The results were as follows: 1) The rate of students with complains of allergic symptoms in the first crosssection investigation was 23.4%. The proportion of students with allergic symptoms, who were newly categorized after their entrance to higher secondary schools, was 5.21 per 100 person-years. 2) The depressive state score of CFSI in these school students was higher than that of workers or university students. 3) The CFSI score of allergic symptoms group was higher than that of the non-allergy group in each surveyed school. 4) The CFSI score was associated with reactivity to the allergic symptoms. Thus, allergic symptoms were recognized as a significant factor to worsen the CFSIScores. These findings suggest a positive correlation between allergic symptoms and the physical and mental conditions in high school students.
Japanese life expectancy prolonged greatly and has now reached the world longest longevity, 75.92 years for males and 81.90 for females, in 1990. However, in recent years, various disease prevalences among elderies have increased markedly and thus a question arises on the quality of the prolongedlongevity, for which no information is given by the usual life tables. We constructed Japanese health life tables which take the disability prevalence and days in disability and give a disability free life expectany (health life expectancy, DFLE). Sullivan's method was employed for construction and the data from the reports of several kinds of national surveys published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Prime Minister's Office were used. The results of the Japanese health life table, 1990, showed that DFLE were 71.09 years for males and 74.56 years for females and BFLE (bed-disability free life expectancy) 74.26 years for males and 78.34 years for females. Compared with the formerly reported ones, Japanese health life expectancy has increased along with the prolongation of expectation of life at birth, implying improvements in the quality of Japanese life expectancy. The average years of life with any disability and the average years of life in beddisability have decreased. Most of the disabilities, especially the bed-disabilities, occur in older ages. A prominent sexual difference is observed in these average years; female preponderance in disability free life expectancy is considerably smaller than that in general expectation of life.
We conducted a survey on bone density of adult females living in Chichibu District, Saitama Prefecture, for the purpose of clarifying the differences in factorswhich affect bone density and contribute to prevention of osteoporosis among different age groups. Bone densities of 506 women were measured by ultrasonic bonedensitometry and their lifestyle was examined. By dividing the subjects into 5 age group, the factors associated with bone density differed among them. In the age group of 20 to 39 years old, body weight andexercise habit (at present) were significantly positively associated with bone density. In the age group of 40 to 49 years old, the positive association with body weight and exercise habit (at junior high and senior high schools) was observed. In the age group of 50 to 59 years old, bone density was significantly positively associated with regularity in menstruation and body height, and negatively with smoking habit and delivery history. In the age group of 60 years or more, body weight only was positively associated with bone density. According to the results of this study, the health education for encouraging regular exercise during the period of junior high school through up to about 40 yearsold and smoking cessation was considered to be effective for prevention of the decrease in bone density. However, it seems plausible that exercise is less effective for the individuals aged 60 or more.
It is important to examine effects of exercise on body composition of athletes in understanding their desired fat weight and fat percentage. In this study, changes in the obesity level were investigated for 29 rugby football players (11 forward players and 18 backs players) and 31 non-athletes as the control, all of whom were students in the same university, before and after the football season in 1994. Major results were as follows. 1. There were three major observations in comparison of changes in obesity level between the player group and the control group. First, fat weight and fatpercentage of the player group significantly decreased during the season (by paired t-test), whereas those of the control group did not. Second, according to measurements by A-mode type ultrasonic device, subcutaneous fat thickness of the player group became significantly thinner on all measurement points during the season, whereas such decreases of the control group were observed only on legs and arms. Third, increase of lean body weight during the season occurred only in the player group. 2. Three methods, i.e. A-mode type ultrasonic device method, sulfur hexaf luoride (SF6) dilution method, and body mass index (BMI) method, were applied todetermination of the obesity level. Among them, A-mode type ultrasonic device method was demonstrated to be the most sensitive to changes in obesity level caused by training among the player group.
Killifish kept in distilled water or in river water containing 10 M-CdSO4 for 24 hrs, were then transferred to the same water without cadmium (Cd). Survival rate ofthe fish in the distilled water was 63.6% at 24 hrs after the transfer and 50.0% at 168 hrs, whereas no dead fish was observed in the river water even at 168 hrs. Cd uptaken preliminarily was excreted with a relatively rapid rate up to 24 hrs after the transfer, followed by a slow excretion rate. Cd remained in the fish kept in the river water for 168 hrs was 32.2% of the uptaken, whereas that in the distilled water was 74.0%. The contents of zinc and calcium in the alive fish (/gram) increased highly significantly during the excretion phases of Cd both in the distilled and river water. Those of iron and copper increased significantly in the distilled water, but did not in the river water. In considering the decrease of body weight owing to non-supplementation of feed, minerals in the whole fish were assessed. A significant increase in zinc and calcium was also observed; however, that in iron and copper even in the distilled water was not observed. From the observations, it is assumed that the intakes of zinc and calcium should be needed, while iron and copper were not actively taken during the excretion phase of Cd.