With rapid estimate model, maternal mortality in China for the year of 1990 was estimated, where vital statistics system has not been well established. Since the original methodology failed to address the validity of estimate, the assessment was made by application of this method to the published figures in Japan from 1960 to 1990. The results manifested the model is good for the purpose of estimation when data of age-specific mortlity and fertility are available with limited registration failures. The maternal mortality rate in China, which was estimated with this model, was higher than that obtained in sampling survey of Chinese government. The multiple regression analysis suggested the sampling survey might fail to include maternal deaths from unplanned births.
The objective of this study is to examine the regional feartures reported in the National Nutrition Survey that the increase in salt intake from 1985 to 1993 was steeper in the region where previous salt intake was smaller. Increases in intakes of food and sodium, derived from "other seasonings" (one of food categories) were related to the increase in salt intake in the whole country of Japan. Intake of "other seasonings" was larger in the regions where previous salt intake was smaller. The extent of the increase in salt intake from 1985 to 1993 was higher in the regions where the previous intake of ?gother seasonings" was higher . The major reason why the intake of ?gother seasonings" affected the increase in salt intake is attributable to the revision of tables of food composition, from the table of food composition by weight average to standard tables of food composition in Japan (fourth revised edition) in which relatively higher sodium contents are given to "other seasonings" than the former. It is concluded that the regional features of the increase in salt intake in Japan reported in the National Nutrition Survey is an apparent phenomenon that was caused by the change of the method for estimating amounts of nutrients, due to the change of the tables of food composition or the associated changes of the classification system of foods.
To clarify children's dietary consciousness and behavior and to relate them with their consciousness of daily living, a questionnaire survey was conducted for 1568 elementary school pupils of the second to sixth grades. The major results were as follows: 1) Lower-grade children had exemplary and healthy views on diet. Though they were too young to help preparation of meals, they were strongly interested in knowledge about foods and cooking skills. In contrary, higher-grade children often helped meal preparation but tended to free from such views and became flexible and diversified according to, for instance, their favorable tastes. At the same time, they showed much interest in information of foods provided outside the home . 2) Children who enjoyed school life and had positive feeling about the relationship with their families tended to show strong interest in knowledge on foods and cooking skills to develop exemplary and healthy views on diet and to desire meals taken with their families. These consciousness and behavior were judged to be related with the school education and the parents' expectation on their children. Children who wished to spend more time in leisure showed higher interest in knowledge on foods taken outside the home. 3) Regarding the relationship between the dietary consciousness and behavior and the self-evaluated health status, the more subjective symptons the more highly interest in knowledge on foods taken outside the home and the less exemplary and healthy views on diet among the boys, and the more subjective symptons the more highly desire to take meals with their families among the girls.
Using the measurements of periodical health examinations conducted in 1995 by Tokyo Health Service Association of Preventive Medicine for 94, 721 male workers aged 18 or higher in 488 private enterprises and public organization in Tokyo, the occurrences of findings for hyperlipidemia. Hypertension and glucose intolerance were related with body mass index (BMI) and other health examination values. The major results wer as follows: 1) The occurrence of obesity in the subjects (BMI ≥ 26.4, obesity > 20%) was 12.3% and that of obesity and obesity proneness (BMI ≥ 24.2) pooled increased to 33.2%, with higher rates among those of forties to fifties compared to other age groups. 2) The subjects of obesity and obesity proneness showed high values in many examination items, especially SBP, DBP, GOT, y-GTP, TC, HDL (low-value proneness), and FPG. 3) The occurrence of hyperlipidemia in the whole subjects was 10.9%, that for hypertension 0.1% and that for glucose intolerance 1.9%. These rates increased from the subjects belonging to lower to higher BMI divisions, in addition to an increase in odds ratio. This pattern was notable in younger age groups than others. 4) Of the subjects with hyperlipidemia, hypertenstion and glucose intolerance, those with hypertension had the highest odds ratio; of complication cases with two of the three conditions, those with hyperlipidemia and hypertension showed the highest odds ratio. 5) Complication cases of these three were not prevalent, but their frequency was high in moderate-to-high obesity groups, with the highest age-adjusted odds ratio of 10.93. An increased proneness of obesity among male workers has been found in many health examinations, which had a close relationship with the occurrences of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. This situation enhanced motivation and stimulation of improvements of health control activities to contribute to establishment of a useful guideline for lowering coronary risks.