The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate population dynamics, especially marriage, divorce, and live birth and stillbirth by legitimacy, in Japan for the period after World War II, between 1947 and 1994 in particular, following our previous report on the similarly designed analyses for the period before World War II. Marriage rate between 1947 and 1949 was estimated at around 70 to 80 per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15. In 1950's, the rate suddenly dropped, and then gradually increased until early 1970's. Form mid-1970's to late 1980's the rate constantly decreased and recently it has reached around 35. Estimated divorce rate showed a clear decrease from about five to three per 1, 000 married women from 1947 to 1963. Then, it raised again to around six in 1994. Estimated illegitimate birth rate showed a clear decrease from around nine to less than one per 1, 000 unmarried women over age 15 in the study period. Ratio of illegitimate births to all births once clearly decreased until mid-1960's and then turned to increase. Sex ratio of illegitimate births was smaller than that of legitimate births in the bulk of the study period. It was considered that the trends of marriage, divorce and birth by legitimacy were affected by Japanese old marriage registration custom. Estimated illegitimate stillbirth rate (after the eighth month of gestation) was much higher than legitimate stillbirth rate over the observation period . The former increased from 1951 to about 1960 and then turned to decrease whereas the latter was almost constant until about 1960 and then turned to decrease. It was suspected that these trends of stillbirth rates in 1950's were partly caused by some deaths of infants being registered as stillbirth.
This research examined differences in health and vaccination status as well as a mother'sbeliefs and practices during illnesses between the less modernized Pwo animist and the moremodernized Sgaw Christian highland Karen of northwest Thailand . There are numerous and significant differences between Pwo and Sgaw mothers in their specific beliefs and behaviors related to children's health, including smoking rates, bathing children, clinic visitation, vaccination rates and specific illnesses. In particular, Sgaw mothers more frequently exhibit behaviors which should enhance the health of their children. These differences between the two groups concerning health beliefs and the behaviors are at least partially responsible for the lower morbidity and mortality rates found among Sgaw preschool children . A mother's acceptance of Christianity historically could be associated with an increased degree of modernization, and promotion of behavioral changes in individuals among the Sgaw Christian group, which appears to have positive influence on children's health status.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the background factors of subconsciousness which underlie in the Japanese view of life and death, especially the attitude toward the remains. The data were obtained from a questionnaire survey for 874 subjects, i.e. 705 ordinary people and 169 medical students. The main findings are as follows: 1. Animism, belief in the ancestral souls, confucianist ideas, Buddhist belief, and the respect of the ashes were initially supposed as the background factors. However, the results of the factor analysis show that the separation of animism from Buddhist belief, and the separation of the religious mind from the repect of the ashes are impossible. 2. The answers were significantly different in the ordinary people and the medical students, but the same factors were subtracted from both groups. 3. Insufficient knowledge about the cerebral death, womanhood, youthfulness and the Confucianist idea are the reasons for the ordinary people to reject the idea of donating the organs. In the student group, only the Confucianist idea is a related factor to the rejection. 4. Insufficient knowledge about the cerebral death, oldness, Confucianist idea, denial of the almighty of science and the mixed sense of respect for the ashes and the religious mind are the reasons for the ordinary people to reject to receive the other's organs. In the students group, only the mixed sense of respect for the ashes and the religious minds is the factor for rejection. 5. It is necessary for the doctors to understand the Japanese view of life and death and its background factors; this means that the medical education should include these factors.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the structure of consciousness which affects the attitude concerning organ transplantation, especially donation of one's organ, by means of the covariance structure analysis. The main findings from the survey for 705 subjects of ordinary group and 160 subjects of medical students were as follows: 1. In the ordinary group, background factors that construct a view of life and death are classified into two main flows which are interrelated from each other: one from "Animism" to "Buddhist belief" that respects the souls and the other from "Confucianist idea" that respects the body . "Buddhist belief" contributed to the attitude that did not reject the donation of their organs. 2. Regarding the medical students, only "Confucianist idea" among the background factors played a regulating role in construction of a view of life and death. 3. "Confucianist idea" remarkably regulated the attitude that rejects donation of their organs in both ordinary people and medical students. However, it was shown that the basic structure of a view of life and death in the ordinary people was quite different from that in the medical students.