As pointed out by H. Toyokawa in 1975, there are internal relationships in the food con sumption pattern among Japanese, which is determined by food habit, preference, and other food-related factors. Despite the fact that their food consumption has been markedly changed since 1975, however, there have been few reports which focused on the change of food con sumption pattern because of the lack of methodologies. We proposed a new method of analyzing the food consumption data which were collected in two or more surveys on the same persons. This method enables to grasp movements of each variable (representing a food group) in factor space, by analyzing multi-year's data in a single procedure. From the analysis of 159 females' food consumption data surveyed in 1979 and 1989, paying attention to the changes in the relationships among the food groups, the following results were obtained; 1. The factors obtained were alike to those which were previously defined as the character istics of Japanese food consumption pattern. 2. The main food groups, which determined, respectively, the first and second factors, decreased absolute values of their factor loading, demonstrating that they lost their typical positions with changes in the relationship among food groups . 3. There was no consistent relationship between the change in intake of each food group and the change in the factor loading, implying that the change in intake could not be explained by only the change of food consumption pattern . 4. It was suggested that this analytical method was useful for examination of the change of food consumption pattern, using the data which were collected in two or more surveys on the same individuals.
We conducted a survey on bone mineral density of adult males living in Japan, for the purpose of clarifying the differences in factors that affect bone mineral density among different age groups and contribute to prevention of osteoporosis. Bone mineral densities of 916 men aged 20 to 69 were measured by dual energy Xray absorptiometry and their lifestyle was examined. The relationship of bone mineral density with BMI (body mass index) and lifestyle factors was examined by applying to the mean value for each item by the unpaired t-test or oneway ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis, in which the bone mineral density was treated as the dependent variable and BMI and lifestyle factors as the independent variables, was applied to evaluate the effects of them. In the age group of 20-29 years old, BMI (p<0.01) and exercise habit at present (p<0.05) were significantly positively associated with bone mineral density. In the age group of 30-39 years old, the positive association of bone mineral density with BMI was observed (p<0.01). In the age group of 40-49 years old, bone mineral density was significantly positively associated with BMI (p<0.01), exercise habit (at present) (p<0.05), exercise habit (in the past) (p<0 .05), and intake of dairy products (in the past) (p<0.01). In the age groups of 50 years and over, bone mineral density was significantly positively associated with BMI and smoking habit (p<0.01). According to the results of this study, the health education for encouraging exercise and intake of dairy products from younger age up to 40s was considered to be effective for primary prevention of osteoporosis. However, it seems plausible that such education is less effective for the individuals aged 50 or more.
This study aimed to assess the degree of mental and physical fatigue and the related factors in 70 caregivers of the frail elderly who received home care services in Shizuoka City, Japan, using a Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index (CFSI) and compared them with age-adjusted con trol group of 126 women living with healthy elderly relatives aged 65 and older. The subjects were subdivided into two groups (less than 60 years of age, and older). The following results were obtained: 1) The CFSIs for chronic tiredness, general fatigue, physical disorders, anxiety, depressive feeling, irritability, and decreased vitality were higher in the caregivers than in the control subjects of both age groups. 2) Fatigue of the caregivers, particularly those aged 60 or over, was chiefly due to chronic tiredness and mental fatigue. 3) According to multiple regression analysis, factors related to the CFSIs of the caregivers were closely associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor health. It has been suggested that use of visiting nurse service and home-help service for 24 hours are necessary to relieve the caregivers from fatigue and to enable them to take enough sleep, and that day services are effective to guarantee caregivers' personal health and well-being.
The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic and environmental roles in nocturnal enuresis in childhood. The subjects aged 3 to 10 years were 916 twin pairs, consisting of 609 monozygotic (MZ), 272 dizygotic (DZ) and 35 unknown in zygosity. Covariance structure analysis was performed for the 881 twin pairs of known zygosity using program packages PRELIS2 and LISLEL8. The results demonstrated that (1) the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was higher in males than in females for all ages, suggesting sex difference, (2) the concordance rates were higher in MZ than in DZ pairs for all ages, suggesting the existence of genetic factors, (3) directly, sex-limitation models, which estimate sex differences, fit in all cases, and heritability was higher in males for 3-4 years of age and in females for 5-8 years of age, implying importance of considering genetic factors for females whose enuresis continues, (4) the influence of environmental factors was estimated to be about 50%, supporting the effectiveness of an interventional approach for environmental factors. It is concluded that sex and age difference and genetic contribution should simultaneously be considered in the management of nocturnal enuresis in childhood.