The purpose of the study is to examine the reliability and the validity of a scale on positive dietary behavior and diet-related attitude (Positive Dietary Behavior & Attitude Scale: PDBA Scale) among the elderly for diet-related quality of life. The PDBA Scale has 3 subscales, which indicate social aspect, personal aspect, and subjective evaluation. Four hundreds and eight subjects, 65 to 85 years old, living in M town in Saitama Prefecture, answered the questionnaire, which consists of dietary behaviors and die-related attitudes, QOL, health behaviors, and socio-demographic factors. QOL was assessed by three indices, such as Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) index of competence as an index of individual status, social integration score as an index of social environmental factors, and the Morale scale as an index of subjective evaluation. Results obtained were as follows:1. Twenty items of dietary behavior and diet related attitudes were selected for the PDBA Scale by means of principal component analysis. 10 items were selected for social aspect, 5 items for personal aspect, and 5 items for subjective evaluation respectively.2. Scores on PDBA Scale (PDBA Score) were calculated on the 4 degree of twenty items; from the most positive = 3, to the least positive = 0. The total means of score was 32.1 (maximum 60), and the means in females was significantly higher than that in males.3. Reliability: Cronbach's a-coefficient was 0.86 with a high internal consistency. a-coefficients were 0.87 for social aspect, 0.76 for personal aspect, and 0.85 for subjective evaluation respectively.4. Validity: High content validity was found by the relationship between the PDBA Score and food frequency score. Partial correlation coefficients between the PDBA Score and each of three indices of QOL, adjusted for age and sex, were all significant, 0.544 for TMIG index of competence, 0.588 for social integration score, 0.347 for Morale scale respectively. They indicated a high criterion-related validity. It was recognized that the PDBA Scale was an effective index for diet-related QOL amongthe elderly. The results also suggested that the PDBA Scale could be an effective index for the evaluation of nutrition education.
To characterize the features of epidemic patterns of infectious gastroenteritis among 47 pre-fectures in Japan, we have introduced the use of two new statistical methods, the modified Lorenz curve and the modified Gini index, which are usually used in economics and demogra-phy. These statistical methods are reported to be suitable for the analysis of seasonal variations and were used in conjunction with the cumulative percentage curves. We attempted to apply these new methods using data collected from the surveillance of infectious diseases in Japan. The results suggest that cumulative percentage curves may be useful for the monitoring of in-fectious gastroenteritis epidemics in several prefectures. The modified Lorenz curve and the epi-demic index, namely the modified Gini index, may also be useful as standards for comparing the epidemic features of infectious diseases for epidemic patterns that are characterized by tempo-ral changes within the same prefecture. Such application could enable essential differences among different prefectures and different infectious diseases to be described.