To examine possible differences in the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and lifestyle-related factors in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae (L2, L3 and L4) of middleaged elderly females, the associations between BMD and several lifestyle-related factors were epidemiologically analyzed according to age class in fifty-seven Japanese females, aged 30 to 60, using health check-up data obtained in 1999 in Mito, Japan. The lifestyle-related factors consisted of physical exercise habits, preference of soybean or soybean products, preference of milk or dairy products, and preference of animal protein-rich foods (beef, chicken, pork, fish, processed foods or eggs). The BMD was estimated by the DEXA method using QDR-1000. The BMD in L2, L3, and L4 decreased markedly after the age of 50, whereas no significant differences in any of the three vertebrae were observed for the 30-39 and 40-49 age groups. In all of the age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-), the BMD was highest for L4, intermediate for L3 and lowest for L2. In individuals younger than 50 (before menopause), the relationship between the adjusted mean BMD and physical exercise habits showed little difference for L2, L3 and L4: the positive association of physical exercise and BMD was strong for L2 and L3, and weak for L4. While preferences for soybean or soybean products and milk or dairy products had a weak positive association with the adjusted mean BMD for each vertebrae, preferencescores for animal protein-rich foods were clearly inversely associated with the adjusted mean BMD of each of the three vertebrae, especially in individuals over the age of 50 (after menopause). These results suggest that the relationship between BMD and lifestyle-related fac tors may differ for each lumbar vertebrae as well as the individual's age. We propose that the excessive intake of animal protein-rich foods may have an adverse effect on BMD in elderly women after menopause, whereas physical exercise before menopause may be beneficial for the prevention of osteoporosis.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure at rest and during step-tests were measured among urban migrants of Papua New Guinea Highlanders (n=6, 3 males and 3 females). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed by heart-rate (HR) monitoring (flex-HR method) and physical activity level (PAL) calculation was based on BMR (i, e. PAL=TEE/BMR). All males had relatively higher PAL (above 2.0), whereas PAL of females varied (range, 1.51-1.96). These high PALS observed in males may reflect that they performed unusual heavy task (carpentry) during survey period. In addition, evaluation of accelerometers for the assessment of TEE was conducted by using TEE estimated from HR monitoring as reference . It was found that the TEE estimated from the accelerometer counts was highly correlated with that estimated from HR monitoring (r=0.85, p<0.05). The results suggest that the acceleration monitoring is a useful method for assessing physical activity of free-living populations.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of health professionals toward persons with aphasia and factors related to these attitudes. Three selfreported questionnaires were used in this study: the Interpersonal Orientation Scale-5th Version (IOS-V), Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDPS), Scale of Attitudes toward Aphasic Persons (SAAP). Data was gathered from a sample of 307 health professionals including nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists and radiological technologists by mail (response rate 34%). The results were as follows:1. Physical therapists showed the most favorable and positive attitudes toward persons with aphasia, followed by occupational therapists, nurses, and radiological technologists in descending order.2. Again, physical therapists showed the most favorable and positive attitudes toward disabled persons, followed by occupational therapists, nurses, and radiological technologists in descending order.3. Results indicated that attitudes toward the disabled are significantly related to prior experience with the disabled, and profession. Subjects with prior work experience with the disabled had significantly lower scores on the IDP scale than subjects without prior work experience, indicating more favorable and positive attitudes toward the disabled.4. Also, results indicated that attitudes toward persons with aphasia are significantly relat ed to prior work experience with aphasic persons, prior work experience with the disabled and IDPS. Subjects with prior work experience with aphasic persons revealed more favorable and positive attitudes than did subjects without work experience.5. Results indicated that gender was not a significant factor concerning attitudes toward the disabled.
This study developed the stochastic simulation model constructed on the unit which was categorized by subgroups of age, sex and marital status, and evaluated the validity of the model. Events in the model were birth, death, and marriage. The estimation of the parameters in a death and marriage model was done by using vital statistics data from Japan. The desired fami ly size and the proportion of contraceptive user at the time when a mother reached the desired family size were incorporated in the birth model. Occurrence of an event was determined for each individual in subgroups using a uniform random number based on the agespecific probability for the specified events. A series of sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the model. Results showed that the model was robust across the initial population sizes. When the effects of changes in the desired family size and the contraceptive use on population growth were considered, both affected the population growth rate. Similarly, changes of the age-specific mortality rate and the agespecific marriage rate also affected the population growth. From theresults of these sensitivity analyses, it was concluded that this simulation model was an effective tool for analysis of reproductive demography.